Explain how urine may become concentrated as it moves
through the collecting duct. (p. 796)
Compare the processes by which urea and uric acid are
absorbed. (p. 796)
List the common constituents of urine and their sources.
List some of the factors that aF
ect the daily urine volume.
20.4 Elimination of Urine
Describe the structure and function of a ureter. (p. 798)
Explain how the muscular wall of the ureter helps move
urine. (p. 798)
Describe what happens if a ureter becomes obstructed.
Describe the location and structure of the urinary
bladder. (p. 799)
Distinguish between the internal and external urethral
sphincters. (p. 800)
Compare the urethra of a female with that of a male.
Describe the micturition re²
ex. (p. 802)
Which movement involves skeletal muscle? (p. 802)
a. contraction of the internal urethral sphincter
b. contraction of the external urethral sphincter
c. ureteral peristalsis
d. detrusor muscle contraction
20.5 Life-Span Changes
Describe changes in the urinary system with age. (p. 803)
Explain how the hydrostatic pressure of a glomerular
ects the rate of glomerular ±
ltration. (p. 789)
Describe the two mechanisms by which the body
regulates glomerular ±
ltration rate. (p. 790)
Discuss how tubular reabsorption is selective. (p. 791)
Explain how the peritubular capillary is adapted for
tubular reabsorption. (p. 791)
Explain how epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted
tubule are adapted for tubular reabsorption. (p. 791)
Explain why active transport mechanisms have limited
transport capacities. (p. 791)
renal plasma threshold,
and explain its signi±
in tubular reabsorption. (p. 792)
Explain how amino acids and proteins are reabsorbed.
Describe the eF
ect of sodium reabsorption on the
reabsorption of negatively charged ions. (p. 792)
Explain how sodium reabsorption aF
reabsorption. (p. 792)
Explain how the renal tubule is adapted to secrete
hydrogen ions. (p. 793)
Explain how potassium ions may be passively secreted.
Explain how hypotonic ²
uid is produced in the ascending
limb of the nephron loop. (p. 795)
Explain why ²
uid in the descending limb of the nephron
loop is hypertonic. (p. 795)
The major action of ADH on the kidneys is to increase
____________. (p. 796)
a. water reabsorption by the proximal convoluted tubule
b. glomerular ±
c. water reabsorption by the collecting duct
d. potassium excretion
OUTCOMES 15.5, 20.2, 20.3
1. If the blood pressure of a patient in shock as a result of a
severe injury decreases greatly, how would you expect the
volume of urine to change? Why?
OUTCOMES 15.7, 15.8, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4
2. A physician prescribes oral pencillin therapy for a patient with
an infection of the urinary bladder. How would you describe
for the patient the route the drug follows to reach the bladder?
OUTCOMES 16.8, 20.2, 20.3
3. Why are people with the nephrotic syndrome, in which plasma
proteins are lost into the urine, more susceptible to infection?
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
OUTCOMES 16.8, 20.4
ammation of the urinary bladder is more common in
women than in men. What anatomical differences between the
female and male urethra explain this observation?
OUTCOMES 20.2, 20.3
5. What effect would being born with narrowed renal arteries
have on the volume and composition of urine?
OUTCOMES 20.2, 20.3, 20.4
6. If a patient who has had major abdominal surgery receives
uids equal to the volume of blood lost during
surgery, would you expect the volume of urine produced to be
greater than or less than normal? Why?