10. Elastic connective tissue
Elastic connective tissue is mainly composed of elastic
bers and imparts an elastic quality to the walls of
certain hollow internal organs such as the lungs and
blood vessels.
11. Cartilage
a. Cartilage provides a supportive framework for
various structures.
b. Its extracellular matrix is composed of F
bers and a
gel-like ground substance.
c. It lacks a direct blood supply and is slow to heal.
d. Most cartilaginous structures are enclosed in a
perichondrium, which contains blood vessels.
e. Major types are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage,
and F
f. Cartilage is at the ends of various bones; in the ear;
in the larynx; and in the pads between the bones
of the spinal column, pelvic girdle, and knees.
12. Bone
a. The extracellular matrix of bone contains mineral
salts and collagen.
b. Its cells usually form concentric circles around
central canals. Canaliculi connect the cells.
c. It is an active tissue that heals rapidly.
13. Blood
a. Blood is composed of cells suspended in fl
b. Blood cells are formed by special tissue in the
hollow parts of certain bones.
1. Epithelial membranes
a. Serous membranes
(1) Serous membranes line body cavities that do
not open to the outside.
(2) They are composed of epithelium and loose
connective tissue.
(3) Cells of serous membranes secrete watery
serous fl uid that lubricates membrane surfaces.
b. Mucous membranes
(1) Mucous membranes line cavities and tubes
opening to the outside of the body.
(2) They are composed of epithelium and loose
connective tissue.
(3) Cells of mucous membranes secrete mucus.
c. The cutaneous membrane is the external body
covering commonly called skin.
2. Synovial membranes are composed of connective
tissue only, and line joints.
1. General characteristics
a. Muscle tissue contracts, moving structures
attached to it.
b. Three types are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
muscle tissues.
2. Skeletal muscle tissue
a. Muscles containing this tissue usually attach to
bones and are controlled by conscious effort.
b. Muscle cells are long and threadlike, containing
several nuclei, with alternating light and dark
cross-markings (striations).
d. Exocrine glands are classiF
ed according to the
composition of their secretions.
(1) Merocrine glands secrete watery fl
uids without
loss of cytoplasm. Most secretory cells are
Serous cells secrete watery fl
uid with a
high enzyme content.
(b) Mucous cells secrete mucus.
(2) Apocrine glands lose portions of their cells
during secretion.
(3) Holocrine glands release cells F
lled with
1. General characteristics
a. Connective tissue connects, supports, protects,
provides frameworks, F
lls spaces, stores fat,
produces blood cells, protects against infection,
and helps repair damaged tissues.
b. Connective tissue cells usually have considerable
extracellular matrix between them.
c. This extracellular matrix consists of F
bers, a
ground substance, and fl
2. Major cell types
a. ±ibroblasts produce collagenous and elastic F bers.
b. Macrophages are phagocytes.
c. Mast cells release heparin and histamine.
3. Connective tissue F
a. Collagenous F bers are composed of collagen and
have great tensile strength.
b. Elastic F bers are composed of elastin and are elastic.
c. Reticular F bers are F ne collagenous F
4. Categories of connective tissues
a. Connective tissue proper includes loose connective
tissue (areolar, adipose, reticular) and dense
connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular,
b. Specialized connective tissues include cartilage,
bone, and blood.
5. Areolar tissue
a. Areolar tissue forms thin membranes between
organs and binds them.
b. It is beneath the skin and between muscles.
6. Adipose tissue
a. Adipose tissue is a specialized form of connective
tissue that stores fat, cushions, and insulates.
b. It is found beneath the skin; in certain abdominal
membranes; and around the kidneys, heart, and
various joints.
7. Reticular tissue
a. Reticular connective tissue largely consists of thin,
branched collagenous F
b. It supports the walls of the liver, spleen, and
lymphatic organs.
8. Dense regular connective tissue
Dense regular connective tissue is largely composed
of strong, collagenous F
bers that bind structures as
parts of tendons and ligaments.
9. Dense irregular connective tissue
Dense irregular connective tissue has thicker,
randomly distributed collagenous F
bers and is found
in the dermis.
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