968
GLOSSARY
periosteum
(per
e-os
te-um)
Fibrous
connective tissue covering the
surface of a bone. p. 194
peripheral
(pe
˘-rif
er-al)
Pertaining to
parts near the surface or toward the
outside. p. 21
peripheral nervous system
(pe
˘-rif
er-
al ner
vus sis
tem)
Parts of the
nervous system outside the central
nervous system; PNS. p. 354
peripheral protein
(pe
˘-rif
er-al pro
te
¯n)
Globular protein associated with the
inner surface of the cell membrane.
p. 80
peripheral resistance
(pe
˘-rif
er-al re-
zis
tans)
Resistance to blood fl
ow
due to friction between blood and
blood vessel walls. p. 583
peristalsis
(per
ı˘-stal
sis)
Rhythmic
waves of muscular contraction in the
walls of certain tubular organs. p. 300
peritoneal
(per
ı˘-to-ne
al)
Pertaining to
the peritoneum. p. 14
peritoneal cavity
(per
ı˘-to-ne
al kav
ı˘-te)
The potential space between the
parietal and visceral peritoneal
membranes. p. 14
peritoneum
(per
ı˘-to-ne
um)
Serous
membrane that lines the abdominal
cavity and encloses the abdominal
viscera. p. 14
peritubular capillary
(per
ı˘-tu
bu-
lar kap
ı˘-ler
e)
Capillary that
surrounds a renal tubule and
functions in tubular reabsorption
and tubular secretion during urine
formation. p. 784
permeable
(per
me-ah-bl)
Open to
passage or penetration. p. 93
peroxisome
(pe
˘-roks
ı˘-so
¯m) Membranous
cytoplasmic vesicle that contains
enzymes that catalyze reactions that
produce and decompose hydrogen
peroxide. p. 86
phagocyte
(fag
o-sı¯t)
Cell that ingests
particulate matter. p. 96
phagocytosis
(fag
o-si-to
sis)
Process
by which a cell engulfs and digests
solids. p. 96
phalanx
(fa
langks)
Bone of a ±
nger or
toe (pl.,
phalanges
). p. 206
pharynx
(far
ingks)
Portion of the
digestive tube posterior to the nasal
and oral cavities, as well as the
larynx. p. 661
phenotype
(fe
no-tı¯p)
The expression of
a gene or genes. p. 920
phosphate buffer system
(fos
fa
¯t buf
er
sis
tem)
A mix of sodium
monohydrogen phosphate and
sodium dihydrogen phosphate that
weakens a strong acid and a strong
base, respectively; resists changes in
pH. p. 821
pelvis
(pel
vis)
Bony ring formed by the
sacrum and coxae. p. 206
penis
(pe
nis)
Male external
reproductive organ through which
the urethra passes. p. 843
pepsin
(pep
sin)
Protein-splitting
enzyme that the gastric glands
secrete. p. 666
pepsinogen
(pep-sin
o-jen)
Inactive
form of pepsin. p. 666
peptidase
(pep
tı˘-da
¯s)
Enzyme
that catalyzes the breakdown of
polypeptides. p. 682
peptide
(pep
tı¯d)
Compound composed
of two or more amino acids. p. 373
peptide bond
(pep
tı¯d bond)
Bond
between the carboxyl group of one
amino acid and the amino group of
another. p. 116
perception
(per-sep
shun)
Mental
awareness of sensory stimulation.
p. 438
perforating canal
(per
fo-ra
¯t
eng kah-
nal
) Transverse channel that
connects central canals in compact
bone; Volkmann’s canal. p. 195
perforin
(per
fo-rin)
Protein that
cytotoxic T cells release that binds
antigen. p. 627
pericardial
(per
ı˘-kar
de-al)
Pertaining
to the pericardium. p. 12
pericardium
(per
ı˘-kar
de-um)
Serous
membrane that surrounds the heart.
p. 554
perichondrium
(per
ı˘-kon
dre-
um)
Layer of ±
brous connective
tissue that encloses cartilaginous
structures. p. 158
perilymph
(per-ı˘-limf)
Fluid in the
space between the membranous and
osseous labyrinths of the inner ear.
p. 453
perimetrium
(per-ı˘-me
tre-um)
Outer
serosal layer of the uterine wall.
p. 854
perimysium
(per
ı˘-mis
e-um)
Sheath
of connective tissue that encloses a
bundle of skeletal muscle ±
bers or a
fascicle. p. 286
perineal
(per
ı˘-ne
al)
Pertaining to the
perineum. p. 24
perineum
(per
ı˘-ne
um)
Body region
between the scrotum (male) or
urethral opening (female) and the
anus. p. 412
perineurium
(per
ı˘-nu-re-um)
Layer
of connective tissue that encloses a
bundle of nerve ± bers in a nerve.
p. 412
periodontal ligament
(per
e-o-don
tal
lig
ah-ment)
Fibrous membrane
that surrounds a tooth and attaches
it to the jawbone. p. 660
paranasal sinus
(par
ah-na
zal si-nus)
Air-±
lled cavity in a cranial bone;
lined with mucous membrane and
connected to the nasal cavity.
p. 208
parasympathetic division
(par
ah-
sim
pah-thet
ik dı˘-vizh
un)
Part
of the autonomic nervous system
that arises from the brain and sacral
region of the spinal cord. p. 424
parathyroid gland
(par
ah-thi
roid
gland)
One of four small
endocrine glands embedded in the
posterior part of the thyroid gland.
p. 502
parathyroid hormone
(par
ah-thi
roid
hor
mo
¯n)
Hormone secreted by
the parathyroid glands that helps
regulate the level of blood calcium
and phosphate ions; PTH. p. 502
parietal
(pah-ri
e
˘-tal)
Pertaining to the
wall of an organ or cavity. p. 12
parietal cell
(pah-ri
e
˘-tal sel)
Cell
of a gastric gland that secretes
hydrochloric acid and intrinsic
factor. p. 666
parietal pleura
(pah-ri
e
˘-tal ploo
rah)
Membrane that lines the inner wall
of the thoracic cavity. p. 12
parotid glands
(pah-rot
id glandz)
Large salivary glands on the sides of
the face just in front and below the
ears. p. 661
partial pressure
(par
shal presh
ur)
Pressure one gas produces in a
mixture of gases. p. 757
patellar
(pah-tel
ar)
Pertaining to the
kneecap. 23
pathogen
(path
o-jen)
Disease-causing
agent. p. 617
pectoral
(pek
tor-al)
Pertaining to the
chest. p. 24
pectoral girdle
(pek
tor-al ger
dl)
Part
of the skeleton that supports and
attaches the upper limbs. p. 206
pedal
(ped
al)
Pertaining to the foot.
p. 24
pedigree
(ped
ı˘-gre)
Chart that displays
relationships among family members
and their inherited traits and
disorders. p. 921
pelvic
(pel
vik)
Pertaining to the pelvis.
p. 24
pelvic cavity
(pel
vik kav
i-te)
Hollow
place within the ring formed by the
sacrum and coxae. p. 12
pelvic girdle
(pel
vik ger
dl)
Part of the
skeleton to which the lower limbs
attach. p. 206
pelvic infl
ammatory disease
(pel
vik
in-fl
am
ah-tore dı˘-ze
¯z
)
Ascending
infection of the upper female genital
tract. p. 869
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