967
GLOSSARY
ovulation
(o
vu-la
shun)
Release of
an egg cell from a mature ovarian
follicle. p. 851
oxidation
(ok
sı˘-da
shun)
Process
by which oxygen combines with
another chemical; removal of
hydrogen or loss of electrons; the
opposite of reduction. p. 120
oxygen debt
(ok
sı˘-jen det)
Amount of
oxygen required following physical
exercise to react accumulated lactic
acid to form glucose. p. 295
oxyhemoglobin
(ok
sı˘-he
mo-glo
bin)
Compound formed when oxygen
binds hemoglobin. p. 763
oxytocin
(ok
sı˘-to
sin)
Hormone
released by the posterior lobe of the
pituitary gland that contracts smooth
muscles in the uterus and mammary
glands. p. 498
P
pacemaker
(pa
¯s
ma
¯k-er)
Mass of
specialized cardiac muscle tissue
that controls the rhythm of the
heartbeat; the sinoatrial node. p. 566
packed cell volume
(pakt sel vol
u
¯m)
Number of red blood cells in
milliliters per 100 mL of centrifuged
blood. p. 523
pain receptor
(pa
¯n re
sep
tor)
Sensory
nerve ending that transmits impulses
interpreted as pain. p. 439
palate
(pal
at)
Roof of the mouth. p. 657
palatine
(pal
ah-tı¯n)
Pertaining to the
palate. p. 657
palmar
(pahl
mar)
Pertaining to the
palm of the hand. p. 23
pancreas
(pan
kre-as)
Glandular organ
in the abdominal cavity that secretes
hormones and digestive enzymes.
p. 509
pancreatic
(pan
kre-at
ik)
Pertaining to
the pancreas. p. 509
pantothenic acid
(pan
to-the
nik as
id)
Vitamin of the B-complex group;
vitamin B
5
. p. 714
papilla
(pah-pil
ah)
Tiny, nipplelike
projection. p. 448
papillary muscles
(pap
ı˘-ler
e mus
elz)
Muscles that extend inward from the
ventricular walls of the heart and to
which the chordae tendineae attach.
p. 557
paracrine
(par
ah-krin)
Type of
endocrine secretion in which the
hormone affects nearby cells. p. 483
paradoxical sleep
(par
ah-dok
se-kal
sle
¯p)
Sleep in which some areas
of the brain are active, producing
dreams and rapid eye movements.
p. 409
organelle
(or
gah-nel
)
A structure or
compartment in cells that houses the
biochemical reactions that carry out
a speciF
c function. p. 4
organic
(or-gan
ik)
A molecule that
contains carbon. p. 60
organism
(or
gah-nizm)
An individual
living thing. p. 4
organ system
(or
gan sis
tem)
Group
of organs coordinated to carry on a
specialized function. p. 4
orgasm
(or
gaz-em)
An intense
sensation that is the peak of sexual
excitement. p. 844
origin
(or
ı˘-jin)
End of a muscle that
attaches to a relatively immovable
part. p. 303
oropharynx
(o
ro-far
ingks)
Part of the
pharynx in the posterior to the oral
cavity. p. 663
osmoreceptor
(oz
mo-re-sep
tor)
Receptor that senses changes in the
osmotic pressure of body fl
uids.
p. 498
osmosis
(oz-mo
sis) Movement
of water through a selectively
permeable membrane in response to
a concentration gradient created by
an impermeant solute. p. 90
osmotic pressure
(oz-mot
ik presh
ur)
Pressure needed to stop osmosis; a
solution’s potential pressure caused
by impermeant solute particles in
the solution. p. 94
osseous tissue
(os
e-us tish
u)
Bone
tissue. p. 453
ossif
cation
(os
ı˘-fı˘-ka
shun)
±ormation
of bone tissue. p. 197
osteoblast
(os
te-o-blast
)
Bone-forming
cell. p. 197
osteoclast
(os
te-o-klast
)
Cell that
erodes bone. p. 198
osteocyte
(os
te-o-sı¯t)
Mature bone cell.
p. 195
osteon
(os
te-on)
Cylinder-shaped unit
containing bone cells that surround
a central canal; Haversian system.
p. 195
osteoporosis
(os
te-o-po-ro
sis)
Condition in which bones break
easily because calcium is lost faster
than it is replaced. p. 204
otic
(o
tik)
Pertaining to the ear. p. 24
otolith
(o
to-lith)
Small particle of
calcium carbonate associated with
the receptors of equilibrium. p. 459
oval window
(o
val win
do)
Opening
between the stapes and the inner
ear. p. 452
ovarian
(o-va
re-an)
Pertaining to the
ovary. p. 512
ovary
(o
var-e)
Primary female
reproductive organ; an egg cell-
producing organ. p. 512
bonded nucleotides; RNA or DNA.
p. 68
nucleolus
(nu-kle
o-lus)
Small structure
in the cell nucleus that contains
RNA and proteins and is the site of
synthesis of ribosome components
(pl.,
nucleoli
). p. 90
nucleoplasm
(nu
kle-o-plazm
)
Contents of the cell nucleus. p. 90
nucleotide
(nu
kle-o-tı¯d
)
Building
block of a nucleic acid molecule,
consisting of a sugar, nitrogenous
base, and phosphate group. 68
nucleus
(nu
kle-us)
Cellular organelle
enclosed by a double-layered,
porous membrane and containing
DNA; the dense core of an atom that
is composed of protons and neutrons
(pl.,
nuclei
). pp. 52, 76
nutrient
(nu
tre-ent)
Chemical that the
body requires from the environment.
p. 699
nutrition
(nu-trish
un)
Study of the
sources, actions, and interactions of
nutrients. p. 699
O
obesity
(o-be
¯s
ı˘-te)
Excess adipose
tissue; a body mass index greater
than 30. p. 708
occipital
(ok-sip
i-tal)
Pertaining to the
lower, back portion of the head.
p. 24
olFactory
(ol-fak
to-re)
Pertaining to the
sense of smell. p. 446
oligodendrocyte
(ol
ı˘-go-den
dro-sı¯t)
Type of neuroglia in the CNS that
produces myelin. p. 358
oncogene
(ong
ko-je
¯n)
Gene that
normally controls cell division but
when overexpressed leads to cancer.
p. 104
oocyte
(o
o-sı¯t)
Cell formed by
oogenesis. An egg cell. p. 831
oogenesis
(o
o-jen
e
˘-sis)
Differentiation
of an egg cell. p. 849
optic chiasma
(op
tik ki-az
mah)
X-shaped structure on the underside
of the brain formed by a partial
crossing of optic nerve F
bers.
p. 405
optic disc
(op
tik disk)
Region in the
retina of the eye where nerve F
bers
exit, becoming part of the optic
nerve. p. 469
oral
(o
ral)
Pertaining to the mouth.
p. 24
orbital
(or
bı˘-tal)
Region in the atom
containing electrons. p. 23
organ
(or
gan)
Structure consisting of
a group of tissues with a specialized
function. p. 4
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