963
GLOSSARY
isotope
(i
so-to
¯p)
Atom that has the same
number of protons as other atoms of
an element but has a different number
of neutrons in its nucleus. p. 53
isthmus
(is
mus)
Narrow connection
between two larger parts. p. 499
J
jejunum
(je
˘-joo
num)
Part of the small
intestine between the duodenum
and the ileum. p. 680
joint capsule
(joint kap
sul)
An
envelope, attached to the end of
each bone at the joint, enclosing
the cavity of a synovial joint.
p. 264
juxtaglomerular apparatus
(juks
tah-glo-
mer
u-la
¯r ap
ah-ra
tus)
A group
of cells in the wall of the afferent
arteriole in the kidney that plays a
role in the control of renin secretion.
p. 784
juxtamedullary nephron
(juks
tah-
med
u- la
¯r-e nef
ron)
A nephron
with its corpuscle near the renal
medulla. p. 784
K
karyotype
(kar
e
¯-o-tı¯p)
A chart of
the chromosomes arranged in
size-ordered homologous pairs.
The human karyotype has 23
chromosome pairs. p. 918
keratin
(ker
ah-tin)
Protein in
epidermis, hair, and nails. p. 147
keratinization
(ker
ah-tin
ı˘-za
shun)
Process by which cells form F
brils of
keratin and harden. p. 173
ketone body
(ke
to
¯n bod
e)
Type
of compound produced during
fat catabolism, including
acetone, acetoacetic acid, and
betahydroxybutyric acid. p. 703
Kupffer cell
(koop
fer sel)
Large, F
xed
phagocyte in the liver that removes
bacterial cells from the blood.
p. 673
kwashiorkor
(kwash
e-or
kor)
Starvation resulting from a switch
from breast milk to food deF
cient in
protein. p. 726
L
labor
(la
bor)
Process of childbirth.
p. 900
labyrinth
(lab
ı˘-rinth)
System of
connecting tubes in the inner ear,
including the cochlea, vestibule, and
semicircular canals. p. 453
lacrimal gland
(lak
rı˘-mal gland)
Tear-
secreting gland. p. 463
interneuron
(in
ter-nu
ron)
Neuron
between a sensory neuron and
a motor neuron; intercalated;
internuncial, or association neuron.
p. 361
interphase
(in
ter-fa
¯z)
Period between
two cell divisions when a cell
metabolizes and prepares for
division. p. 100
interstitial cell
(in
ter-stish
al sel)
Hormone-secreting cell between the
seminiferous tubules of the testis.
p. 835
intervertebral disc
(in
ter-ver
te
˘-bral
disk)
Layer of F
brocartilage
between the bodies of adjacent
vertebrae. p. 206
intestinal gland
(in-tes
tı˘-nal gland)
Tubular gland at the base of a villus
in the intestinal wall. p. 681
intracellular fl
uid
(in
trah-sel
u-lar
fl oo
id)
±luid in cells. p. 812
intramembranous bone
(in
trah-
mem
brah-nus bo
¯n)
Bone that
forms from membranelike layers of
primitive connective tissue. p. 197
intrauterine device
(in
trah-u
ter-
in de-vı¯s)
Solid object placed
in the uterine cavity to prevent
implantation of a fertilized ovum;
IUD. p. 866
intrinsic factor
(in-trin
sik fak
tor)
Substance that gastric glands
produce to promote absorption of
vitamin B
12
. p. 528
inversion
(in-ver
zhun)
Turning the
sole of the foot inward. p. 269
involuntary
(in-vol
un-ta
¯r
e)
Not
consciously controlled; functions
automatically. p. 163
ion
(i
on)
Atom or molecule with an
electrical charge. p. 55
ionic bond
(i-on
ik bond)
Chemical
bond formed between two ions by
transfer of electrons; electrovalent
bond. p. 55
ipsilateral
(ip
sı¯-lat
er-al)
On the same
side. p. 21
iris
(i
ris)
Colored, muscular part of the
eye around the pupil that regulates
its size. p. 467
ischemia
(is-ke
me-ah)
DeF ciency of
blood in a body part. p. 440
isometric contraction
(i
so-met
rik kon-
trak
shun)
Muscular contraction
that does not change the muscle
length. p. 298
isotonic
(i
so-ton
ik)
Solution with
the same osmotic pressure as the
solution with which it is compared
(usually body fl
uids). p. 94
isotonic contraction
(i
so-ton
ik kon-
trak
shun)
Muscular contraction that
changes the muscle length. p. 298
inferior
(in-fe
¯r
e-or)
Situated below
something else; pertaining to the
lower surface of a part. p. 21
infl
ammation
(in
ah-ma
shun)
Tissue
response to stress that includes
dilation of blood vessels and fl
uid
accumulation in the affected region.
p. 183
infundibulum
(in
fun-dib
u-lum)
Stalk
attaching the pituitary gland to the
base of the brain. p. 405
inguinal
(ing
gwı˘-nal)
Pertaining to the
groin region. p. 23
inguinal canal
(ing
gwı˘-nal kah-nal
)
Passage in the lower abdominal wall
through which a testis descends into
the scrotum. p. 833
inhibin
(in
hib
in)
Hormone secreted
by cells of the testes and ovaries that
inhibits the secretion of ±SH from
the anterior pituitary gland. p. 845
innate defense
(in-na
¯t
de-fens
)
Inborn,
nonspeciF c defense that blocks entry
of or destroys pathogens. p. 626
inorganic
(in
or-gan
ik)
Chemical
that does not include carbon and
hydrogen atoms. p. 60
insertion
(in-ser
shun)
End of a muscle
attached to a movable part. p. 303
inspiration
(in
spı˘-ra
shun)
Breathing
in; inhalation. p. 747
inspiratory capacity
(in-spi
rah-to
re
kah-pas
i-te)
Volume of air equal to
the tidal volume plus the inspiratory
reserve volume. p. 753
inspiratory reserve volume
(in-spi
rah-
to
re re-zerv
vol
u
¯m)
Amount of
air that can be inhaled in addition to
the tidal volume. p. 752
insula
(in
su-lah)
Cerebral lobe deep
within the lateral sulcus. p. 400
insulin
(in
su-lin)
Hormone the
pancreatic islets secrete that stimulates
cells to take up glucose. p. 93
integumentary
(in-teg-u-men
tar-e)
Pertaining to the skin and its
accessory organs. p. 14
intercalated disc
(in-ter
ka
¯h-la
¯t
ed disk)
Membranous boundary between
adjacent cardiac muscle cells. p. 301
intercellular junction
(in
ter-sel
u-lar
junk
shun)
Site of union between
cells. p. 144
interferon
(in
ter-fe
¯r
on)
Class of
immune system chemicals (cytokines)
that inhibit multiplication of viruses
and growth of tumors. p. 626
interleukin
(in
ter-lu
kin)
Class
of immune system chemicals
(cytokines) with varied effects. p. 530
internal environment
(in-ter
nal en-vi
ron-
ment)
Conditions and elements
that make up the inside of the body,
surrounding the cells. p. 9
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