962
GLOSSARY
hypotonic
(hi
po-ton
ik)
Solution with
a lower osmotic pressure than the
solution with which it is compared
(usually body fl
uids). p. 94
hypoxia
(hi-pok
se-ah)
Def
ciency oF
oxygen in the tissues. p. 440
I
idiotype
(id
e-o-tı¯p
)
Parts oF an
antibody
s antigen binding site that
are complementary in conFormation
to a particular antigen. p. 634
ileocecal sphincter
(il
e-o-se
kal sf
ngk
ter)
Ring oF muscle f
bers at the
distal end oF the ileum where it joins
the cecum. p. 686
ileum
(il
e-um)
Part oF the small
intestine between the jejunum and
the cecum. p. 680
iliac region
(il
e-ak re
jun)
Part oF
the abdomen on either side oF the
hypogastric region. p. 22
ilium
(il
e-um)
One oF the bones oF a
hipbone. p. 231
immunity
(ı˘-mu
nı˘-te)
Resistance to the
eFFects oF specif
c disease-causing
agents. p. 532
immunoglobulin
(im
u-no-glob
u-
lin)
Globular plasma protein that
Functions as an antibody. p. 633
immunosuppressive drugs
(im
u-no-
su
˘-pres
iv drugz)
Substances that
suppress the immune response
against transplanted tissue. p. 641
implantation
(im
plan-ta
shun)
Embedding oF a cleavage embryo in
the lining oF the uterus. p. 882
impulse
(im
puls)
Wave oF
depolarization conducted along a
nerve f
ber or muscle f
ber. p. 16
incisor
(in-si
zor)
One oF the Front
teeth adapted For cutting Food.
p. 659
inclusion
(in-kloo
zhun)
Inert
chemicals in the cytoplasm. p. 89
incomplete dominance
(in
kom-ple
¯t
do
meh-nents)
Heterozygote
whose phenotype is intermediate
between the phenotypes oF the two
homozygotes. p. 922
incompletely penetrant
(in
kom-ple
¯t
le
pen
e-trent)
When the Frequency
oF genotype expression is less than
100%. p. 924
inert
(in-ert
)
Nonreactive with other
elements. p. 55
infancy
(in
Fan-se)
Period oF liFe From
the f Fth week aFter birth through the
end oF the f rst year. p. 905
infection
(in-Fek
shun)
Invasion and
multiplication oF microorganisms or
inFectious agents in body tissues.
p. 626
hydrostatic pressure
(hi
dro-stat
ik
presh
ur)
Pressure exerted by fl uids,
such as blood pressure. p. 8
hymen
(hi
men)
Membranous Fold
oF tissue that partially covers the
vaginal opening. p. 854
hyperextension
(hi
per-ek-sten
shun)
Extreme extension; continuing
extension beyond the anatomical
position. p. 267
hyperglycemia
(hi
per-gli-se
me-ah)
Elevated blood glucose. p. 510
hyperkalemia
(hi
per-kah-le
me-ah)
Elevated blood potassium. p. 513
hypernatremia
(hi
per-nah-tre
me-ah)
Elevated blood sodium. p. 816
hyperparathyroidism
(hi
per-par
ah-
thi
roi-dizm)
Oversecretion oF
parathyroid hormone. p. 504
hyperpolarization
(hi
per-po
lar-i-
za
shun)
Increase in the negativity
oF the resting potential oF a cell
membrane. p. 368
hypertension
(hi
per-ten
shun)
Elevated blood pressure. p. 588
hyperthyroidism
(hi
per-thi
roi-dizm)
Oversecretion oF thyroid hormones.
p. 501
hypertonic
(hi
per-ton
ik)
Solution with
a greater osmotic pressure than the
solution with which it is compared
(usually body fl uids). p. 94
hypertrophy
(hi-per
tro-Fe)
Enlargement
oF an organ or tissue. p. 300
hyperventilation
(hi
per-ven
tı˘-la
shun)
Abnormally deep and prolonged
breathing. p. 758
hypochondriac region
(hi
po-kon
dre-ak
re
jun)
Portion oF the abdomen on
either side oF the epigastric region.
p. 22
hypogastric region
(hi
po-gas
trik
re
jun)
Lower middle portion oF the
abdomen. p. 22
hypoglycemia
(hi
po-gli-se
me-ah)
Low
blood glucose. p. 510
hypokalemia
(hi
po-kah-le
me-ah)
Low
blood potassium. p. 573
hyponatremia
(hi
po-nah-tre
me-ah)
Low blood sodium. p. 816
hypoparathyroidism
(hi
po-par
ah-
thi
roi-dizm)
Undersecretion oF
parathyroid hormone. p. 504
hypophysis
(hi-poF
i-sis)
Pituitary
gland. p. 493
hypoproteinemia
(hi
po-pro
te-ı˘-ne
me-
ah)
Low blood proteins. p. 816
hypothalamus
(hi
po-thal
ah-mus)
Part
oF the brain located below the
thalamus and Forming the fl
oor oF
the third ventricle. p. 405
hypothyroidism
(hi
po-thi
roi-dizm)
Undersecretion oF thyroid hormones.
p. 501
hepatic
(he
˘-pat
ik)
Pertaining to the
liver. p. 673
hepatic lobule
(he
˘-pat
ik lob
u
¯l)
±unctional unit oF the liver. p. 673
hepatic sinusoid
(he
˘-pat
ik si
nu
˘-soid)
Vascular channel in the liver. p. 673
heterozygous
(het
er-o-zi
gus)
DiFFerent
alleles in a gene pair. p. 919
hilum
(hi
lum)
Depression where
vessels, nerves, and other structures
(bronchus, ureter, etc.) enter an
organ. p. 621
hilus
(hi
lus)
Hilum. p. 621
hindbrain
(hı¯nd
bra
¯n)
Posteriormost
part oF the developing brain that
gives rise to the cerebellum, pons,
and medulla oblongata. p. 398
hinge joint
(hinj joint)
Two
bones joined where the convex
end oF one bone f
ts into the
complementary concave end oF
another. p. 266
hippocampus
(hip
o-kam
pus)
Part oF
the cerebral cortex where memories
Form. p. 404
histamine
(his
tah-min)
Substance
released From stressed cells that
promotes infl
ammation. p. 579
holocrine gland
(ho
lo-krin gland)
Gland whose secretion contains
entire secretory cells. p. 150
homeostasis
(ho
me-o-sta
sis)
State oF
equilibrium in which the internal
environment oF the body remains in
the normal range. p. 9
homeostatic mechanism
(ho
me-o-
stat
ik mek
ah-nizm)
Process
used to maintain a normal internal
environment in the body. p. 9
homozygous
(ho
mo-zi
gus)
Identical
alleles in a gene pair. p. 919
hormone
(hor
mo
¯n)
Substance
secreted by an endocrine gland and
transported in the blood. p. 16
human chorionic gonadotropin
(hu
man
ko
re-on
ik gon
ah-do-tro
pin)
Hormone, secreted by an embryo,
that helps Form the placenta; hCG.
p. 882
humoral immune response
(hu
mor-
al i-mu
¯n
ri-spons
)
Circulating
antibodies’ destruction oF cells
bearing nonselF antigens. p. 633
hyaline cartilage
(hi
ah-lı¯n kar
tı˘-lij)
Semitransparent, fl
exible connective
tissue with an ultra-f
ne f ber matrix.
p. 160
hydrogen bond
(hi
dro-jen bond)
Weak
bond between a hydrogen atom and
an atom oF oxygen or nitrogen. p. 57
hydrolysis
(hi-drol
ı˘-sis)
Enzymatically
adding a water molecule to split a
molecule. p. 116
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