961
GLOSSARY
G protein
(g pro
te
¯n)
Organic
compound which activates an
enzyme bound to the inner surface
of the cell membrane, eliciting a
signal. p. 488
granulocyte
(gran
u-lo-sı¯t)
Leukocyte
with granules in its cytoplasm. p. 530
gray matter
(gra
¯ mat
er)
Region of the
central nervous system that lacks
myelin and thus appears gray. p. 358
gray ramus
(gra
¯ ra
mus)
Short nerve
containing postganglionic axons
returning to a spinal nerve. p. 426
growth
(gro
¯th)
Process by which a
structure enlarges. p. 876
growth hormone
(gro
¯th hor
mo
¯n)
Hormone released by the anterior
lobe of the pituitary gland that
promotes the growth of the
organism; GH. p. 201
gubernaculum
(goo
ber
nak
u-lum)
Structure that guides another
structure. p. 833
gyrus
(ji
rus) Elevation on the brain's
surface caused by infolding. p. 398
H
hair cell
(ha
¯r sel)
Mechanoreceptor
in the inner ear between the
basilar membrane and the tectorial
membrane that triggers action
potentials in F
bers of the auditory
nerve. p. 455
hair follicle
(ha
¯r fol
ı˘-kl)
Tubelike
depression in the skin where a hair
develops. p. 178
haploid
(hap
loid)
Sex cell with a single
set of chromosomes, in humans 23.
p. 831
hapten
(hap
ten)
Small molecule that
combines with a larger one, forming
an antigen. p. 628
haustra
(haws
trah)
Pouches in the
wall of the large intestine. p. 688
hematocrit
(he-mat
o-krit)
The
percentage by volume of red blood
cells in a sample of whole blood.
p. 523
hematopoiesis
(hem
ah-to-poi-e
sis)
Production of blood and blood cells;
hemopoiesis. p. 202
hematopoietic stem cell
(hem
ah-to-poi-
e
tik stem sel)
Stem cell that gives
rise to blood cells. p. 524
heme
(he
¯m)
Iron-containing part of a
hemoglobin molecule. p. 762
hemizygous
(hem
ı˘-zi
gus)
A gene on
the Y chromosome in humans. p. 928
hemoglobin
(he
mo-glo
bin)
Oxygen-
carrying pigment in red blood cells.
p. 203
hemostasis
(he
mo-sta
sis)
Stoppage of
bleeding. p. 538
glomerular capillaries in the kidney
into the glomerular capsule. p. 786
glomerular F
ltration
(glo-mer
u-lar F l-
tra
shun)
Process in which blood
pressure forces fl
uid through the
glomerular capillaries in the kidney
into the glomerular capsule. p. 785
glomerulus
(glo-mer
u-lus)
Capillary
tuft in the glomerular capsule of a
nephron. p. 779
glottis
(glot
is)
Slitlike opening between
the true vocal cords. p. 741
glucagon
(gloo
kah-gon)
Hormone
secreted by the pancreatic islets that
releases glucose from glycogen.
p. 509
glucocorticoid
(gloo
ko-kor
tı˘-koid)
Any one of a group of hormones
secreted by the adrenal cortex that
infl
uences carbohydrate, fat, and
protein metabolism. p. 507
gluconeogenesis
(gloo
ko-ne
o-jen
e
˘-
sis)
Synthesis of glucose from
noncarbohydrates such as amino
acids. p. 701
glucose
(gloo
ko
¯s)
Monosaccharide in
blood that is the primary source of
cellular energy. p. 62
gluteal
(gloo
te-al)
Pertaining to the
buttocks. p. 23
glycerol
(glis
er-ol)
Organic compound
that is a building block for fat
molecules. p. 63
glycogen
(gli
ko-jen)
Polysaccharide
that stores glucose in the liver and
muscles. p. 62
glycolysis
(gli-kol
ı˘-sis)
The energy-
releasing breakdown of glucose
to pyruvic acid during cellular
respiration. p. 120
glycoprotein
(gli
ko-pro
te-in)
Compound composed of a
carbohydrate and a protein. p. 485
goblet cell
(gob
let sel)
Epithelial cell
specialized to secrete mucus. p. 146
goiter
(goi
ter)
Enlarged thyroid gland.
p. 496
Golgi apparatus
(gol
je
¯ ap
ah-ra
tus)
Organelle that prepares cellular
products for secretion. p. 83
Golgi tendon organ
(gol
je
¯ ten
dun
or
gan) Sensory receptors in tendons
close to muscle attachments that
are involved in refl
exes that help
maintain posture. p. 444
gomphosis
(gom-fo
sis)
Type of joint
in which a cone-shaped process is
fastened in a bony socket. p. 262
gonad
(go
nad)
A sex cell-producing
organ; an ovary or testis. p. 497
gonadotropin
(go-nad
o-tro
¯p
in)
Hormone that stimulates activity in
the gonads. p. 845
ganglion
(gang
gle-on)
Mass of
neuron cell bodies, usually outside
the central nervous system (pl.,
ganglia
). p. 360
gastric gland
(gas
trik gland)
Gland
in the stomach wall that secretes
gastric juice. p. 666
gastric juice
(gas
trik joo-s)
Secretion
of the gastric glands in the stomach.
p. 666
gastrin
(gas
trin)
Hormone secreted by
the stomach lining that stimulates
secretion of gastric juice. p. 668
gastrula
(gas
troo-lah)
Embryonic
stage following the blastula;
cells differentiate into endoderm,
mesoderm, and ectoderm. p. 885
gene
(je
¯n)
Part of a DNA molecule
that encodes the information to
synthesize a protein, a control
sequence, or tRNA or rRNA. The
unit of inheritance. p. 125
general sense
(jen
er-al sens)
Involves
receptors widely distributed
throughout the body. p. 438
genetic code
(je
˘-net
ik ko
¯d)
Information
for synthesizing proteins encoded
in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
molecules. p. 124
genetic heterogeneity
(je
˘-net
ik het
er-o-
je-ne
ı˘-te)
A trait or condition that
is inherited in more than one way.
p. 924
genetics
(je
˘-net
iks)
The study of the
transmission of inherited traits. p. 917
genital
(jen
i-tal)
Pertaining to the
genitalia (internal and external
organs of reproduction). p. 23
genome
(jeh
no
¯m)
Complete set of
genetic instructions for an organism.
p. 125
genomics
(je-nom
iks)
Study of all
of the genetic information in an
individual organism. p. 918
genotype
(je
no-tı¯p)
The alleles of a
particular gene in an individual.
p. 920
glans penis
(glanz pe
nis)
Enlarged
mass of corpus spongiosum at the
end of the penis; may be covered by
the foreskin. p. 843
gliding joint
(glı¯d
eng joint)
Two joined
bones with nearly fl at surfaces. p. 266
globin
(glo
bin)
Protein part of a
hemoglobin molecule. p. 762
globulin
(glob
u-lin)
Type of protein in
blood plasma. p. 535
glomerular capsule
(glo-mer
u-lar
kap
su
˘l)
Proximal part of a renal
tubule that encloses the glomerulus;
Bowman’s capsule. p. 781
glomerular F
ltrate
(glo-mer
u-lar F l
tra
¯t)
Liquid that passes out of the
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