960
GLOSSARY
fontanel
(fon
tah-nel
)
Membranous
region between certain cranial bones
in the skull of a fetus or infant.
p. 216
food pyramid
(food pe
¯r
ah-mid)
Triangular structure divided into
sections representing different types
and proportions of nutrients the
body requires. p. 722
foramen
(fo-ra
men)
An opening,
usually in a bone or membrane (pl.,
foramina
). p. 208
foramen magnum
(fo-ra
men mag
num)
Opening in the occipital bone of the
skull through which the spinal cord
passes. p. 208
foramen ovale
(fo-ra
men o-val
e)
Opening in the interatrial septum of
the fetal heart. p. 897
forebrain
(fo
¯r
bra
¯n)
Anteriormost part
of the developing brain that gives
rise to the cerebrum and basal
nuclei. p. 398
fossa
(fos
ah)
Depression in a bone or
other part. p. 208
fovea centralis
(fo
ve-ah sen-tral
is)
Depressed region of the retina,
consisting of densely packed cones,
that provides the greatest visual
acuity. p. 469
fracture
(frak
chur)
Break in a bone.
p. 202
Frank-Starling law of the heart
(frank
star
ling law of the
˘ hart)
The
relatively longer the cardiac muscle
F bers, the greater the force of
contraction. p. 586
free radical
(fre
¯ rad
eh-kel)
Highly
reactive by-product of metabolism
that can damage tissue. p. 909
frontal
(frun
tal)
Pertaining to the
forehead. p. 22
FSH
±ollicle-stimulating hormone. p. 497
functional residual capacity
(funk
shun-
al re-zid
u-al kah-pas
i-te)
Amount
of air remaining after a normal quiet
respiration. p. 753
functional syncytium
(funk
shun-al
sin-sish
e-um)
Merging cells
performing as a unit; those of the
heart are joined electrically. A
syncytium lacks cell boundaries,
appearing as a multinucleated
structure. p. 565
G
galactose
(gah-lak
to
¯s)
Monosaccharide
component of the disaccharide
lactose. p. 62
gallbladder
(gawl
blad-er)
Saclike
organ associated with the liver that
stores and concentrates bile. p. 677
the removal of hydrogen or electrons
from a fatty acid molecule. p. 702
feces
(fe
se
¯z)
Material expelled from
the digestive tract during defecation.
p. 688
femoral
(fem
or-al)
Pertaining to the
thigh. p. 23
fertilization
(fer
tı˘-lı˘-za
shun)
Union of
an egg cell and a sperm cell. p. 876
fetus
(fe
tus)
Prenatal human after
eight weeks of development. p. 892
fever
(fe
ver)
Elevation of body
temperature above normal. p. 628
±
brillation
(F
brı¯-la
shun)
Uncoordinated contraction of cardiac
muscle F
bers. p. 572
±
brin
(F
brin)
Insoluble, F
brous
protein formed from F
brinogen
during blood coagulation. p. 539
±
brinogen
(F
-brin
o-jen)
Plasma
protein converted into F
brin during
blood coagulation. p. 535
±
broblast
(F
bro-blast)
Cell that
produces F
bers in connective
tissues. p. 153
±
brocartilage
(F
bro-kar
ti-lij)
Strongest
and most durable cartilage; made
up of cartilage cells and many
collagenous F
bers. p. 160
±
brous joint
(F
brus joint)
Two or more
bones joined by connective tissue
containing many F
bers. p. 261
±
ltration
(F
l-tra
shun)
Movement of
material through a membrane as a
result of hydrostatic pressure. p. 58
±
mbria
(F
m
bre-ah)
±ringelike process
at the distal end of the infundibulum
of the uterine tube. p. 852
±
ssure
(F
sh
u
¯r)
Narrow cleft separating
parts, such as the lobes of the
cerebrum. p. 398
agellum
(fl
ah-jel
um)
Relatively long,
motile process that extends from the
surface of a sperm cell. p. 87
exion
(fl
ek
shun)
Bending at a joint to
decrease the angle between bones.
p. 267
folacin
(fo
¯l
ah-sin)
B complex vitamin
necessary for normal cellular
synthetic processes; folic acid. p. 715
follicle
(fol
ı˘-kl)
Pouchlike depression
or cavity. p. 499
follicle-stimulating hormone
(fol
ı˘-kl
stim
u-la
ting hor
mo
¯n)
Substance
secreted by the anterior pituitary
gland to stimulate development of
an ovarian follicle in a female or
production of sperm cells in a male;
±SH. p. 497
follicular cells
(fo
˘-lik
u-lar selz)
Ovarian cells that surround a
developing egg cell and secrete
female sex hormones. p. 847
euploid
(u
ploid)
Having a balanced set
of chromosomes. p. 929
evaporation
(e
vap
o-ra-shun)
Changing a liquid into a gas. p. 182
eversion
(e-ver
zhun)
Turning the sole
of the foot outward. p. 269
exchange reaction
(eks-cha
¯nj re-ak
shun)
Chemical reaction in which parts
of two types of molecules trade
positions. p. 58
excretion
(ek-skre
shun)
Elimination of
metabolic wastes. p. 18
exocrine gland
(ek
so-krin gland)
Gland
that secretes its products into a duct
or onto a body surface. p. 150
exocytosis
(eks
o-si-to
sis)
Transport
of a substance out of a cell in a
membrane-bounded vesicle. p. 98
expiration
(ek
spı˘-ra
shun)
Expulsion
of air from the lungs. p. 747
expiratory reserve volume
(eks-pi
rah-
to
re re-zerv
vol
u
¯m)
Volume of
air that can be exhaled in addition to
the tidal volume. p. 752
extension
(ek-sten
shun)
Movement
increasing the angle between parts
at a joint. p. 267
exteroreceptive sense
(eks
ter-o-re-
sep
tiv sens)
Associated with
changes at the body surface. p. 440
extracellular fl
uid
(eks
trah-selu
-lar fl oo
id)
Body fl uids outside cells. p. 9
extracellular matrix
(eks
trah-selu
-
lar ma
trix)
±ibers and ground
substance among connective tissue
cells. p. 153
F
facet
(fas
et)
Small, fl
attened surface of
a bone. p. 22
facilitated diffusion
(fah-sil
ı˘-ta
¯t
id
dı˘-fu
zhun)
Diffusion in which
a carrier molecule transports
a substance across a cell
membrane from a region of higher
concentration to a region of lower
concentration. p. 90
facilitation
(fah-sil
ı˘-ta
¯
shun)
Subthreshold stimulation of a
neuron that increases response to
further stimulation. p. 375
fascia
(fash
e-ah)
Sheet of F
brous
connective tissue that encloses a
muscle. p. 285
fascicle
(fas
ı˘-k’l)
Small bundle of
muscle F
bers. p. 286
fat
(fat)
Adipose tissue; or an organic
molecule that includes glycerol and
fatty acids. p. 62
fatty acid
(fat
e as
id)
Building block of
a fat molecule. p. 63
fatty acid oxidase
(fat
e as
id ok
si-
days
)
An enzyme that catalyzes
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