959
GLOSSARY
epineurium
(ep
ı˘-nu
re-um)
Outermost
layer of connective tissue
surrounding a nerve. p. 412
epiphyseal plate
(ep
ı˘-F
z
e-al pla
¯t)
Cartilaginous layer in the long bone
epiphysis that grows. p. 198
epiphysis
(e-pif
ı˘-sis)
End of a long
bone. p. 194
epithelial membrane
(ep
ı˘-the
le-al
mem
bra
¯n)
Thin layer of tissue
lining a cavity or covering a surface.
p. 163
epithelial tissue
(ep
ı˘-the
le-al tish
u)
One of the basic types of tissue that
covers all free body surfaces. p. 144
equilibrium
(e
kwı˘-lib
re-um)
State
of balance between two opposing
forces. p. 92
erection
(e
˘-rek
shun)
The F
lling of
penile tissues with blood, stiffening
and elevating the structure. p. 844
erythroblast
(e
˘-rith
ro-blast)
A red
blood cell at an immature stage.
p. 527
erythroblastosis fetalis
(e
˘-rith
ro-blas-
to
sis fe-tal
is)
Life-threatening
massive agglutination in the fetus or
neonate due to the mother
s anti-Rh
antibodies reacting with the baby
s
Rh-positive red blood cells. p. 547
erythrocyte
(e
˘-rith
ro-sı¯t)
Red blood
cell. p. 526
erythropoietin
(e
˘-rith
ro-poi
e
˘-tin)
Kidney hormone that promotes red
blood cell formation; EPO. p. 527
esophageal hiatus
(e
˘-sof
ah-je
al hi-a
tus)
Opening in the diaphragm through
which the esophagus passes.
p. 665
esophagus
(e
˘-sof
ah-gus)
Tubular part
of the digestive tract between the
pharynx and the stomach. p. 665
essential amino acid
(e
˘-sen
shal ah-me
no
as
id)
Amino acid required for health
that body cells cannot synthesize in
adequate amounts. p. 705
essential fatty acid
(e
˘-sen
shal fat
e as
id)
±atty acid required for health that
body cells cannot synthesize in
adequate amounts. p. 703
essential nutrient
(e
˘-sen
shal nu
tre
¯-
ent) Nutrient necessary for
growth, normal functioning, and
maintaining life that the diet must
supply because the body cannot
synthesize it. p. 699
estrogens
(es
tro-jenz)
Group of
hormones (including estradiol,
estrone, and estriol) that stimulates
the development of female
secondary sex characteristics and
produces an environment suitable
for fertilization, implantation, and
growth of an embryo. p. 857
endorphin
(en-dor
F n)
Neuropeptide
synthesized in the pituitary gland
that suppresses pain. p. 374
endosteum
(en-dos
te
¯-um)
Tissue lining
the medullary cavity in a bone. p. 194
endothelium
(en
do-the
le-um)
Layer of
epithelial cells that forms the inner
lining of blood vessels and heart
chambers. p. 574
end-systolic volume
(end sis-tol
ik
vol
u
¯m)
Blood volume remaining
in a ventricle at the end of
ventricular systole. p. 585
energy
(en
er-je)
An ability to move
something and thus do work. p. 119
energy balance
(en
er-je bal
ans)
When
the caloric intake of the body equals
its caloric output. p. 708
enkephalin
(en-kef
ah-lin)
Neuropeptide
in the brain and spinal cord that
inhibits pain impulses. p. 374
enterogastric refl
ex
(en-ter-o-gas
trik
re
fl eks)
Inhibition of gastric
(stomach) peristalsis and secretions
when food enters the small intestine.
p. 670
enzyme
(en
zı¯m)
Protein that catalyzes
a speciF
c biochemical reaction. p. 64
eosinophil
(e
o-sin
o-F l)
White blood
cell containing cytoplasmic granules
that stain with acidic dye. p. 531
ependyma
(e
˘-pen
dı˘-mah)
Membrane
composed of neuroglial cells that
lines the ventricles of the brain.
p. 363
epicardium
(ep
ı˘-kar
de-um)
Visceral
part of the pericardium on the
surface of the heart. p. 555
epicondyle
(ep
ı˘-kon
dı¯l)
Projection of
a bone above a condyle. p. 208
epidermis
(ep
ı˘-der
mis)
Outer
epithelial layer of the skin. p. 172
epididymis
(ep
ı˘-did
ı˘-mis)
Highly
coiled tubule that leads from
the seminiferous tubules of the
testis to the ductus deferens (pl.,
epididymides
). p. 838
epidural space
(ep
ı˘-du
ral spa
¯s)
Space
between the dural sheath of the
spinal cord and the bone of the
vertebral canal. p. 384
epigastric region
(ep
ı˘-gas
trik re
jun)
Upper middle part of the abdomen.
p. 22
epiglottis
(ep
ı˘-glot
is)
±laplike,
cartilaginous structure at the back of
the tongue near the entrance to the
trachea. p. 664
epimysium
(ep
ı˘-mis
e-um)
Outer
sheath of connective tissue
surrounding a skeletal muscle. p. 286
epinephrine
(ep
ı˘-nef
rin)
Hormone
the adrenal medulla secretes during
times of stress. p. 426
the citric acid cycle to form water
and ATP. p. 120
element
(el
e
˘-ment)
Chemical
substance with only one type of
atom. p. 51
elevation
(el-e-va
¯-shun)
Upward
movement of a body part. p. 270
embolus
(em
bo-lus)
Blood clot or gas
bubble carried in the circulation that
may obstruct a blood vessel. p. 541
embryo
(em
bre-o)
Prenatal stage of
development after germ layers form
and rudiments of all organs are
present. p. 849
embryonic disc
(em
bre
¯-on
ik disk)
±lattened area in the cleavage
embryo from which the embryo
arises. p. 885
emission
(e-mish
un)
Movement of
sperm cells from the ductus deferens
into the ejaculatory duct and
urethra. p. 844
emulsiF
cation
(e-mul
sı˘-fı˘
ka
shun)
Breaking up of fat globules into
smaller droplets by the action of bile
salts. p. 678
enamel
(e-nam
el)
Hard covering on the
exposed surface of a tooth. p. 659
end-diastolic volume
(end di-a-stol
ik
vol
u
¯m)
Blood volume remaining
in a ventricle at the end of
ventricular diastole. p. 585
endocardium
(en
do-kar
de-um)
Inner
lining of the heart chambers. p. 555
endochondral bone
(en
do-kon
dral bo
¯n)
Bone that begins as hyaline cartilage
that is subsequently replaced by
bone tissue. p. 197
endocrine gland
(en
do-krı¯n gland)
Gland that secretes hormones
directly into the blood. p. 150
endocytosis
(en
do-si-to
sis)
Process by
which a cell membrane envelopes a
substance and draws it into the cell
in a vesicle. p. 96
endoderm
(en
do-derm)
Innermost
primary germ layer in the embryo.
p. 885
endolymph
(en
do-limf)
±luid in the
membranous labyrinth of the inner
ear. p. 453
endometrium
(en
do-me
tre-um)
Inner
lining of the uterus. p. 854
endomysium
(en
do-mis
e-um)
Sheath
of connective tissue surrounding
each skeletal muscle F
ber. p. 286
endoneurium
(en
do-nu
re-um)
Layer
of loose connective tissue that
surrounds individual nerve F
bers.
p. 412
endoplasmic reticulum
(en-do-plaz
mic
re
¯-tik
u-lum)
Organelle composed
of a system of connected membra-
nous tubules and vesicles. p. 82
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