958
GLOSSARY
dynamic equilibrium
(di-nam
ik e
kwı˘-
lib
re-um)
Maintenance of balance
when the head and body are
suddenly moved or rotated. p. 459
E
eccentric contraction
(ek-sen
trik kon-
trak
shun)
Force in a muscle less
than that required to lift or move an
object. p. 298
eccrine gland
(ek
rin gland)
Sweat
gland that maintains body
temperature. p. 180
ECG
Electrocardiogram; EKG. p. 568
ectoderm
(ek
to-derm)
Outermost
primary germ layer in the embryo.
p. 885
edema
(e
˘-de
mah)
Fluid accumulation
in tissue spaces. p. 620
effector
(e
˘-fek
tor)
A muscle or gland
that effects change in the body. p. 9
efferent
(ef
er-ent)
Conducting away
from the center. p. 781
ejaculation
(e-jak
u-la
shun)
Discharge
of sperm-containing semen from the
male urethra. p. 844
ejaculatory duct
(e-jak
u-lah-to
re dukt)
Tube, formed by the joining of the
ductus deferens and the tube from
the seminal vesicle, that transports
sperm to the urethra. p. 844
elastic cartilage
(e-las
tik kar
tı˘-lij)
Opaque, fl exible connective tissue
with branching yellow ± bers through-
out the extracellular matrix. p. 160
elastic F
ber
(e-las
tik ±
ber)
Yellow,
stretchy, threadlike structure in
connective tissue. p. 155
elastin
(e-las
tin)
Protein that
comprises the yellow, elastic ±
bers
of connective tissue. p. 155
electrocardiogram
(e-lek
tro-kar
de-o-
gram
)
Recording of the electrical
activity associated with the
heartbeat; ECG or EKG. p. 568
electrolyte
(e-lek
tro-lı¯t)
Substance that
ionizes in a water solution. p. 59
electrolyte balance
(e-lek
tro-lı¯t bal
ans)
Condition when the quantities of
electrolytes entering the body equal
those leaving it. p. 61
electron
(e-lek
tron)
A small, negatively
charged particle that encircles the
nucleus of an atom. p. 52
electron shell
(e-lek
tron shel)
The path
formed by an electron or several
electrons encircling the nucleus of an
atom at a particular energy level. p. 55
electron transport chain
(e-lek
tron
trans
pohrt)
Series of oxidation-
reduction reactions that takes high-
energy electrons from glycolysis and
digital
(di
ji-tal)
Pertaining to the ±
nger
or toe. p. 23
dihydrotestosterone
(di-hi
dro-tes-
tos
ter-o
¯n)
Hormone produced
from testosterone that stimulates
certain cells of the male reproductive
system. p. 846
dipeptide
(di-pep
tı¯d)
Molecule
composed of two joined amino
acids. p. 116
diploid
(dip
loid)
Body cell with two full
sets of chromosomes, in humans 46.
p. 917
disaccharide
(di-sak
ah-rı¯d)
Sugar
produced by the union of two
monosaccharides. p. 62
distal
(dis
tal)
Farther from the trunk or
origin; opposite of proximal. p. 21
diuretic
(di
u-ret
ik)
Substance that
increases urine production. p. 792
divergence
(di-ver
jens)
Spreading
apart. p. 376
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. p. 68
DNA damage response
A group of
reactions that enable a cell to repair
certain types of DNA changes that
occur during replication. p. 137
dominant allele
(dom
ı˘-nant ah-le
¯l)
The form of a gene that is expressed.
p. 920
dorsal root
(dor
sal ro
¯ot)
Sensory
branch of a spinal nerve by which it
joins the spinal cord. p. 419
dorsal root ganglion
(dor
sal ro
¯ot
gang
gle-on)
Mass of sensory
neuron cell bodies in the dorsal root
of a spinal nerve. p. 419
dorsifl
exion
(dor
si-fl ek
shun)
Ankle
movement that brings foot closer to
shin. p. 269
dorsum
(dor
sum)
Pertaining to the
back surface of a body part. p. 23
ductus arteriosus
(duk
tus ar-te
re-o
sus)
Blood vessel that connects the
pulmonary artery and the aorta in a
fetus. p. 897
ductus deferens
(duk
tus def
er-ens)
Tube that leads from the epididymis
to the urethra of the male
reproductive tract (pl.,
ductus
deferentia; vas deferens
). p. 839
ductus venosus
(duk
tus ven-o
sus)
Blood vessel that connects the
umbilical vein and the inferior vena
cava in a fetus. p. 897
duodenum
(du
o-de
num)
First portion
of the small intestine that leads from
the stomach to the jejunum. p. 680
dural sinus
(du
ral si
nus)
Blood-±
lled
channel formed by the splitting of the
dura mater into two layers. p. 384
dura mater
(du
rah ma
ter)
Tough outer
layer of the meninges. p. 384
dermatome
(der
mah-to
¯m)
Area of the
body supplied by sensory nerve
± bers associated with a particular
dorsal root of a spinal nerve. p. 419
dermis
(der
mis)
The thick layer of the
skin beneath the epidermis. p. 172
descending colon
(de-send
ing ko
lon)
Part of the large intestine that passes
downward along the left side of the
abdominal cavity to the brim of the
pelvis. p. 687
descending tract
(de-send
ing trakt)
Group of nerve ±
bers that carries
nerve impulses downward from the
brain through the spinal cord. p. 393
desmosome
(des
mo-so
¯m) Specialized
junction between cells, which serves
as a
spot weld.
p. 144
detrusor muscle
(de-tru
¯z
or mus
l)
Muscular wall of the urinary
bladder. p. 800
dextrose
(dek
stro
¯s)
Glucose. p. 62
diabetes insipidus
(di
ah-be
te
˘z in-sip
ı˘-
dus)
Extremely copious urine
produced due to a de±
ciency of
antidiuretic hormone or lack of ADH
response. p. 498
diabetes mellitus
(di
ah-be
te
¯z mel-li
tus)
Elevated glucose in the urine and
blood due to a de±
ciency of insulin
or poor response to it. p. 512
diapedesis
(di
ah-pe
˘-de
sis)
Squeezing
of leukocytes between the cells of
blood vessel walls. p. 533
diaphragm
(di
ah-fram)
Sheetlike
structure of skeletal muscle and
connective tissue that separates the
thoracic and abdominal cavities;
also a caplike contraceptive device
inserted in the vagina. pp. 12, 863
diaphysis
(di-af
ı˘-sis)
Shaft of a long
bone. p. 194
diastole
(di-as
to-le)
Phase of the
cardiac cycle when a heart chamber
wall relaxes. p. 564
diastolic pressure
(di-a-stol
ik presh
ur)
Lowest arterial blood pressure
during the diastolic phase of the
cardiac cycle. p. 580
diencephalon
(di
en-sef
ah-lon)
Part of
the brain in the region of the third
ventricle that includes the thalamus
and hypothalamus. p. 404
differentiation
(dif
er-en
she-a
shun)
Cell specialization. p. 76
diffusion
(dı˘-fu
zhun)
Random move-
ment of molecules from a region of
higher concentration toward one of
lower concentration. p. 90
digestion
(di-jest
yun)
Breaking down
of large nutrient molecules into
smaller molecules that can be
absorbed; hydrolysis. p. 652
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