957
GLOSSARY
cytokine
(si
to-kı¯n)
Type of protein
secreted by a T lymphocyte that
attacks viruses, virally infected cells,
and cancer cells. p. 630
cytokinesis
(si-to-kin-e
sis)
Division of
the cytoplasm. p. 101
cytoplasm
(si
to-plazm)
The contents of
a cell, excluding the nucleus and cell
membrane. p. 76
cytoskeleton
(si
to-skel
e-ton)
System
of protein tubules and F
laments that
reinforces a cell
s three-dimensional
form and provides scaffolding and
transport tracts for organelles. p. 82
cytosol
(si
to-sol)
±luid matrix of the
cytoplasm. p. 76
D
deamination
(de-am
ı˘-na
shun)
Removing amino groups (NH
2
) from
amino acids. p. 704
decomposition
(de-kom
po-zish
un)
The breakdown of molecules. p. 58
deep
(de
¯p)
±ar beneath the surface.
p. 21
defecation
(def
e
˘-ka
shun)
Discharge of
feces from the rectum through the
anus. p. 690
defensin
(di-fen
sin)
Antimicrobial
peptide. p. 626
dehydration
(de
hi-dra
shun)
Excess
water loss. p. 816
dehydration synthesis
(de
hi-dra
shun
sin
the
˘-sis)
Anabolic process that
joins small molecules by releasing
the equivalent of a water molecule;
synthesis. p. 115
dendrite
(den
drı¯t)
Process of a neuron
that receives input from other
neurons. p. 354
dental caries
(den
tal kar
e
¯z)
DecalciF
cation and decay of teeth.
p. 661
dentin
(den
tin)
Bonelike substance
that forms the bulk of a tooth. p. 659
deoxyhemoglobin
(de-ok
sı˘-he
mo-
glo
bin)
Hemoglobin that does not
bind oxygen. p. 526
deoxyribonucleic acid
(de
¯-ok
si-rı¯
bo
¯-
nu-kle
¯
ik as
id)
The genetic
material; a double-stranded polymer
of nucleotides, each containing a
phosphate group, a nitrogenous
base (adenine, thymine, guanine,
or cytosine), and the sugar
deoxyribose; DNA. p. 68
depolarization
(de-po
lar-ı˘-za
shun)
The loss of an electrical charge on
the surface of a cell membrane.
p. 368
depression
(de-presh
un)
Downward
displacement. p. 270
cortex
(kor
teks)
Outer layer of an
organ such as the adrenal gland,
cerebrum, or kidney. p. 504
cortical nephron
(kor
tı˘-kl nef
ron)
Nephron with a corpuscle in the
renal cortex. p. 784
cortisol
(kor
ti-sol)
Glucocorticoid
secreted by the adrenal cortex. p. 507
costal
(kos
tal)
Pertaining to the ribs.
p. 23
countercurrent mechanism
(kown
ter-
kar
ent me
ke
˘-nı˘
zm)
Part of
the process by which the kidneys
concentrate urine. p. 795
covalent bond
(ko
va-lent bond)
Chemical bond formed by electron
sharing between atoms. p. 56
coxal
(kok
sel)
Pertaining to the hip.
p. 23
cranial
(kra
ne-al)
Pertaining to the
cranium, the part of the skull that
does not include the face. p. 12
cranial cavity
(kran
e-al kav
i-te)
Space
in the cranium containing the brain.
p. 12
cranial nerve
(kra
ne-al nerv)
Nerve
that arises from the brain or
brainstem. p. 411
cranium
(kra
ne-um)
Structure formed
by the eight bones of the head. p. 208
creatine phosphate
(kre
ah-tin fos
fa
¯t)
Muscle biochemical that stores
energy. p. 294
crest
(krest)
Ridgelike projection of a
bone. p. 208
cricoid cartilage
(kri
koid kar
tı˘-lij)
A ringlike cartilage that forms the
lower end of the larynx. p. 740
crista ampullaris
(kris
tah am-pul-lah
ris)
Sensory organ in a semicircular
canal that functions in the sense of
dynamic equilibrium. p. 460
cross-over
(kros o
ver)
The exchange
of genetic material between
homologous chromosomes during
meiosis. p. 832
crural
(krur
al)
Pertaining to the leg.
p. 23
cubital
(ku
bi-tal)
Pertaining to the
elbow. p. 23
cuspid
(kus
pid) A canine tooth. p. 658
cutaneous
(ku-ta
ne-us)
Pertaining to
the skin. p. 163
cyanosis
(si
ah-no
sis)
Bluish skin
coloration due to decreased blood
oxygen concentration. p. 176
cyclic adenosine monophosphate
(sik
lik ah-den
o-se
¯n mon
o-fos
fa
¯t)
Circularized derivative of ATP that
responds to messages entering a
cell and triggers the cell
s response;
cyclic AMP or cAMP. p. 487
cystic duct
(sis
tik dukt)
Tube that
connects the gallbladder to the bile
duct. p. 677
condyle
(kon
dı¯l)
Rounded process of
a bone, usually at the articular end.
p. 208
condylar joint
(kon
dı˘-lar joint)
Bone
with an ovoid projection at one
end joined with a bone with a
complementary elliptical cavity;
ellipsoidal joint. p. 265
cone
(ko
¯n)
Color receptor in the retina
of the eye. p. 473
conformation
(kon-for-ma
shun)
Three-
dimensional form of a protein,
determined by its amino acid
sequence and attractions and
repul-sions between amino acids.
p. 65
conjunctiva
(kon
junk-ti
vah)
Membranous covering on the
anterior surface of the eye. p. 463
connective tissue
(ko
˘-nek
tiv tish
u)
Basic type of tissue that consists of
cells within an extracellular matrix,
including bone, cartilage, blood,
loose and dense connective tissue.
p. 152
contraception
(kon
trah-sep
shun)
Behavior or device that prevents
fertilization. p. 862
contractility
(kon
trak-til
ı˘-te)
Shortening of a muscle in response
to stimulation. p. 586
contralateral
(kon
trah-lat
er-al)
Positioned on the opposite side of
something else. p. 21
convection
(kon-vek
shun)
Transmission of heat from one
substance to another through the
circulation of heated air particles.
p. 182
convergence
(kon-ver
jens)
Nerve
impulses arriving at the same
neuron. p. 375
cornea
(kor
ne-ah)
Transparent anterior
portion of the outer layer of the eye
wall. p. 465
corona radiata
(ko-ro
nah ra-di-a
˘
ta)
±ollicular cells surrounding the zona
pellucida of an ovum. p. 849
coronary artery
(kor
o-na
re ar
ter-e)
An artery that supplies blood to the
wall of the heart. p. 561
coronary sinus
(kor
o-na
re si
nus)
Large vessel on the posterior surface
of the heart into which the cardiac
veins drain. p. 563
corpus callosum
(kor
pus kah-lo
sum)
Mass of white matter in the
brain composed of nerve F
bers
connecting the right and left cerebral
hemispheres. p. 398
corpus luteum
(kor
pus lu
te-um)
Structure that forms from the tissues
of a ruptured ovarian follicle and
secretes female hormones. p. 858
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