956
GLOSSARY
collectin
(ko-lek
tin) Protein that protects
against bacteria, yeasts, and some
viruses. p. 627
collecting duct
(ko-lek
ting dukt)
In
the lymphatic system, ducts into
which lymphatic trunks drain. In
the kidney, tubule that receives fl
uid
from several nephrons. pp. 618, 781
colon
(kolon)
Part of the large
intestine. p. 687
colony stimulating factor
(ko
le-ne
stim
yu-lay
ting fak
tor)
Protein
that stimulates differentiation and
maturation of white blood cells.
p. 530
colorblindness
(kul
erblı¯nd
nes)
Inherited inability to distinguish
certain colors. p. 928
colostrum
(ko-los
trum)
The F
rst
secretion of a woman
s mammary
glands after she gives birth. p. 902
compact bone
(kom
pakt bo
¯n)
Dense
tissue in which cells are organized
in osteons without apparent spaces.
p. 194
complement
(kom
ple
˘-ment)
Group
of proteins activated when an
antibody binds an antigen;
enhances reaction against nonself
substances. p. 627
complementary base pair
(kom
ple
˘-men
ta
˘-re ba
¯s pa
¯r)
Hydrogen bonded
adenine and thymine or guanine and
cytosine in DNA. Adenine bonds to
uracil in RNA. p. 127
completely penetrant
(kom-ple
¯t
le pen
e-
trent)
In genetics, indicates that
the frequency of expression of a
genotype is 100%. p. 924
complete protein
(kom-ple
¯t pro
te
¯n)
Protein that contains adequate
amounts of the essential amino
acids to maintain body tissues and
to promote normal growth and
development. p. 705
compound
(kom
pownd)
Substance
composed of two or more chemically
bonded elements. p. 72
concentric contraction
(kon-sen
-trik
kon-trak
-shun)
A contraction that
shortens a muscle. p. 298
condom
(kon
dum)
Latex sheath used
to cover the penis in the male and
line the vagina, preventing sperm
from entering the uterus in the
female, during sexual intercourse;
used as a contraceptive and to
minimize the risk of transmitting
infection. p. 863
conduction
(kon-duk
shun)
Movement
of body heat into the molecules of
cooler objects in contact with the
body surface. p. 182
ciliary body
(sil
e-er
e bod
e)
Structure
associated with the choroid layer of
the eye that secretes aqueous humor
and contains the ciliary muscle.
p. 466
circadian rhythm
(ser
kah-de
an
rithm)
Pattern of repeated activity
associated with the cycles of night
and day. p. 512
circular muscles
(ser
ku-lar mus
lz)
Muscles whose F
bers are organized
in circular patterns, usually around
an opening or in the wall of a tube;
sphincter muscles. p. 654
circumduction
(ser
kum-duk
shun)
Movement of a body part, such as
a limb, so that the end follows a
circular path. p. 269
cisterna
(sis-ter
nah)
Enlarged portion
of the sarcoplasmic reticulum near
the actin and myosin F
laments of a
muscle F
ber. p. 288
citric acid cycle
(sit
rik as
id si
kl)
Series of chemical reactions that
oxidizes certain molecules, releasing
energy; Krebs cycle. p. 120
cleavage
(kle
¯v
ij)
Early successive
divisions of cells of the blastocyst,
reducing cell size. p. 879
clitoris
(kli
to-ris)
Small erectile organ
in the anterior vulva, corresponding
to the penis. p. 855
clone
(klo
¯n)
Group of cells that
descend from a single cell and are
therefore genetically identical to it.
p. 629
CNS
Central nervous system. p. 354
coagulation
(ko-ag
u-la
shun)
Blood
clotting. p. 538
cochlea
(kok
le-ah)
Part of the inner ear
that has hearing receptors. p. 453
codominant
(ko-dom
ı˘-nant)
Alleles
that are each expressed in a
heterozygote. p. 922
codon
(ko
don)
Set of three nucleotides
of a messenger RNA molecule
corresponding to one of the 20 types
of amino acids. p. 131
coenzyme
(ko-en
zı¯m)
Nonprotein
organic molecule required for the
activity of a particular enzyme.
p. 119
coenzyme A
(ko-en
zı¯m)
A molecule
that reacts with acetyl, forming
acetyl coenzyme A, which enters the
citric acid cycle. p. 714
cofactor
(ko
fak-tor)
Small molecule
or ion that must combine with an
enzyme for activity. p. 118
collagen
(kol
ah-jen)
Protein in the
white F
bers of connective tissues
and in bone matrix. p. 155
collateral
(ko-lat
er-al)
A branch of an
axon or blood vessel. p. 356
chloride shift
(klo
rı¯d shift)
Movement
of chloride ions from the blood
plasma into red blood cells as
bicarbonate ions diffuse out of the red
blood cells into the plasma. p. 766
cholecystokinin
(ko
le-sis
to-ki
nin)
Hormone the small intestine secretes
that stimulates release of pancreatic
juice from the pancreas and bile
from the gallbladder. p. 669
cholesterol
(ko-les
ter-ol)
A lipid that
cells produce and use to synthesize
steroid hormones. p. 64
cholinergic F
ber
(ko
lin-er
jik F
ber)
Axon that secretes acetylcholine at
its terminal. p. 428
chondrocyte
(kon
dro-sı¯t)
A cartilage
cell. p. 158
chorion
(ko
re-on)
Extraembryonic
membrane that forms the outermost
layer around a fetus and contributes
to formation of the placenta. p. 885
chorionic villus
(ko
re-on
ik vil
us)
Projection that extends from the
outer surface of the chorion and
helps attach an embryo to the
uterine wall. p. 885
choroid coat
(ko
roid ko
¯t)
Vascular,
pigmented middle layer of the wall
of the eye. p. 466
choroid plexus
(ko
roid plek
sus)
Mass
of specialized capillaries that
secretes cerebrospinal fl
uid into a
ventricle of the brain. p. 363
chromatid
(kro
mah-tid)
One
longitudinal half of a replicated
chromosome. p. 831
chromatin
(kro
mah-tin)
DNA and
complexed protein that condenses to
form chromosomes during mitosis.
p. 90
chromatophilic substance
(kro
mah-to-
F l
ik sub
stans)
Membranous sacs
within the cytoplasm of nerve cells
that have ribosomes attached to
their surfaces; Nissl bodies. p. 356
chromosome
(kro
mo-so
¯m)
Rodlike
structure that condenses from
chromatin in a cell
s nucleus during
mitosis. p. 90
chylomicron
(kil
o-mi
kron)
Microscopic
droplet of fat in the blood that forms
following fat digestion. p. 684
chyme
(kı¯m)
Semifl
uid mass of
partially digested food that passes
from the stomach to the small
intestine. p. 669
chymotrypsin
(ki
mo-trip
sin)
Protein-
splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice.
p. 671
cilia
(sil
e-ah)
Microscopic, hairlike
processes on the exposed surfaces of
certain epithelial cells. p. 87
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