955
GLOSSARY
central nervous system
(sen
tral ner
vus
sis
tem)
The brain and spinal cord;
CNS. p. 354
centriole
(sen
tre-o
¯l)
Cellular structure
built of microtubules that organizes
the mitotic spindle. p. 86
centromere
(sen
tro-me
¯r)
Region of a
chromosome where spindle F
bers
attach during mitosis. p. 101
centrosome
(sen
tro-so
¯m)
Cellular
organelle consisting of two
centrioles. p. 86
cephalic
(se
˘-fal
ik)
Pertaining to the
head. p. 23
cerebellar cortex
(ser
e
˘-bel
ar kor
teks)
Outer layer of the cerebellum. p. 410
cerebellar peduncles
(ser
e
˘-bel
ar pe-
dung
kl)
Bundle of nerve F
bers
connecting the cerebellum and the
brainstem. p. 410
cerebellum
(ser
e
˘-bel
um)
Part of
the brain that coordinates skeletal
muscle movement. p. 410
cerebral aqueduct
(ser
e
˘-bral ak
we
˘-dukt
)
Tube that connects the third and
fourth ventricles of the brain. p. 385
cerebral cortex
(ser
e
˘-bral kor
teks)
Outer layer of the cerebrum. p. 400
cerebral hemisphere
(ser
e
˘-bral hem
ı˘-
sfe
¯r)
One of the large, paired
structures that constitute the
cerebrum. p. 398
cerebrospinal fl
uid
(ser
e
˘-bro-spi
nal
oo
id)
±luid in the ventricles of
the brain, the subarachnoid space
of the meninges, and the central
canal of the spinal cord; CS±.
p. 385
cerebrum
(ser
e
˘-brum)
Part of the
brain in the upper part of the cranial
cavity that provides higher mental
functions. p. 398
cerumen
(se
˘-roo
men)
Waxlike
substance produced by cells that line
the external ear canal. p. 450
cervical
(ser
vı˘-kal)
Pertaining to the
neck. p. 23
cervix
(ser
viks)
Narrow, inferior end
of the uterus that leads into the
vagina. p. 854
chemoreceptor
(ke
mo-re-sep
tor)
Receptor stimulated by the binding
of certain chemicals. p. 439
chemotaxis
(ke
mo-tak
sis)
Attraction
of leukocytes to chemicals released
from damaged cells. p. 635
chief cell
(che
¯f sel)
Cell type in gastric
gland that secretes various digestive
enzymes. p. 666
childhood
(child
hood)
Period of life
between infancy and adolescence.
p. 906
cartilaginous joint
(kar
tı˘-laj
ı˘-nus joint)
Two or more bones joined by
cartilage. p. 262
catabolism
(ka-tab
o-lizm)
Breakdown
of large molecules; catabolic
metabolism. p. 115
catalyst
(kat
ah-list)
Chemical that
increases the rate of a chemical
reaction, but is not permanently
altered by the reaction. p. 59
catecholamine
(kat
e
˘-kol
am-in)
Type
of organic compound that includes
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
p. 505
cation
(kat
i-on)
Atom carrying a
positive charge due to a deF
ciency
of electrons. p. 55
cecum
(se
kum)
Pouchlike part of the
large intestine attached to the small
intestine. p. 687
celiac
(se
le-ak)
Pertaining to the
abdomen. p. 23
cell
(sel)
The structural and functional
unit of an organism. p. 4
cell body
(sel bod
e)
Part of a nerve
cell that includes a cytoplasmic mass
and a nucleus, and from which the
nerve F
bers extend. p. 356
cell cycle
(sel sı¯-kl)
Life cycle of a cell
consisting of G
1
(growth), S (DNA
synthesis), G
2
(growth), and mitosis
(division). p. 100
cell membrane
(sel mem
bra
¯n)
The
selectively permeable outer
boundary of a cell consisting of a
phospholipid bilayer embedded with
proteins. p. 76
cellular adhesion molecules
(sel
u-lar
ad-hee
zhon mol
e
˘-ku
¯lz)
Proteins
that guide movement of cells; CAMs.
p. 80
cellular immune response
(sel
u-lar
ı˘-mu
¯n re-spons
)
The body
s attack
of T cells and their secreted products
on nonself cells. p. 630
cellular respiration
(sel
u-lar res
pı˘-
ra
shun)
A biochemical pathway
that releases energy from organic
compounds. p. 119
cellulose
(sel
u-lo
¯s)
Polysaccharide
abundant in plant tissues that
human digestive enzymes cannot
break down. p. 701
cementum
(se-men
tum)
Bonelike
material that fastens the root of a
tooth into its bony socket. p. 660
central canal
(sen
tral kah-nal
)
Tiny
channel in bone tissue that contains
a blood vessel; Haversian canal;
tube in the spinal cord continuous
with the ventricles of the brain and
contains cerebrospinal fl
uid. p. 363
carbaminohemoglobin
(kar-bam
ı˘-no-
he
mo-glo
bin)
Bonded carbon
dioxide and hemoglobin. p. 766
carbohydrate
(kar
bo-hi
dra
¯t)
Organic
compound consisting of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, in a 1:2:1
ratio. p. 61
carbonic anhydrase
(kar-bon
ik an-
hi
dra
¯s)
Enzyme that catalyzes the
reaction between carbon dioxide and
water to form carbonic acid. p. 766
carbon monoxide
(kar
bon mon-ok
sı¯d)
Toxic gas that binds hemoglobin,
forming a relatively stable
compound; CO. p. 764
carboxypeptidase
(kar-bok
se-pep
ti-
da
¯s)
Protein-splitting enzyme in
pancreatic juice. p. 671
cardiac center
(kar
de-ak sen
ter)
Neurons in the medulla oblongata
that control heart rate. p. 408
cardiac conduction system
(kar
de-ak
kon-duk
shun sis
tem)
System of
specialized cardiac muscle F
bers
that conduct cardiac impulses from
the SA node into the myocardium.
p. 565
cardiac cycle
(kar
de-ak si
kl)
Series
of myocardial contractions and
relaxations that constitute a
complete heartbeat. p. 564
cardiac muscle tissue
(kar
de-ak mus
el
tish
u)
Specialized muscle tissue
found only in the heart. p. 164
cardiac output
(kar
de-ak owt
poot)
The volume of blood per minute that
the heart pumps (multiply stroke
volume in milliliters by the heart
rate in beats per minute). p. 582
cardiac vein
(kar
de-ak va
¯n)
Blood
vessel that returns blood from the
venules of the myocardium to the
coronary sinus. p. 563
cardiovascular
(kar
de-o-vas
ku-lar)
Pertaining to the heart and blood
vessels. p. 16
carina
(kah-ri
nah)
Cartilaginous ridge
between the openings of the right
and left bronchi. p. 743
carotene
(kar
o-te
¯n)
Yellow, orange,
or reddish pigment in plants and a
precursor of vitamin A. p. 176
carotid bodies
(kah-rot
id bod
e
¯z)
Masses of chemoreceptors in the
wall of the internal carotid artery
near the carotid sinus. p. 597
carpal
(kar
pal)
Wrist bone. p. 23
carpus
(kar
pus)
Wrist; the wrist bones
as a group. p. 23
cartilage
(kar
tı˘-lij)
Type of connective
tissue in which cells are in
lacunae separated by a semisolid
extracellular matrix. p. 158
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