954
GLOSSARY
bradycardia
(brad
e-kar
de-ah)
An
abnormally slow heart rate or pulse
rate. p. 572
brainstem
(bra
¯n
stem)
Portion of the
brain that includes the midbrain,
pons, and medulla oblongata. p. 398
Broca’s area
(bro
kahz a
re-ah)
Region
of the frontal lobe that coordinates
complex muscular actions of the
mouth, tongue, and larynx, making
speech possible. p. 402
bronchial tree
(brong
ke-al tre
¯)
The
bronchi and their branches that
carry air from the trachea to the
alveoli of the lungs. p. 743
bronchiole
(brong
ke-o
¯l)
Small branch
of a bronchus in the lung. p. 743
bronchus
(brong
kus)
Branch of the
trachea that leads to a lung (pl.,
bronchi
). p. 743
buccal
(buk
al)
Pertaining to the mouth
and inner lining of the cheeks. p. 23
buffer
(buf
er)
Substance that can react
with a strong acid or base to form a
weaker acid or base, and thus resist
a change in pH. p. 60
bulbourethral gland
(bul
bo-u-re
thral
gland)
Gland that secretes a
viscous fl uid into the male urethra
during sexual excitement; Cowper
s
gland. p. 841
bulimia
(bu-lim
e-ah)
Disorder of binge
eating followed by purging. p. 725
bulk element
(bulk el
e
˘-ment)
Basic
chemical required in abundance.
p. 52
bursa
(bur
sah)
Saclike, fl
uid-F lled
structure, lined with synovial
membrane, near a joint. p. 265
bursitis
(bur-si
tis)
Infl ammation of a
bursa. p. 278
C
calcitonin
(kal
sı˘-to
-nin)
Thyroid
hormone that regulates blood
calcium concentration. p. 501
calorie
(kal
o-re)
Unit that measures
heat energy and the energy contents
of foods. p. 706
calorimeter
(kal
o-rim
e
˘-ter)
Device
that measures the heat energy
content of foods; bomb calorimeter.
p. 706
canaliculus
(kan
ah-lik
u-lus)
Microscopic canal that connects
lacunae of bone tissue (pl.
canaliculi
). p. 195
capacitation
(kah-pas
i-ta
shun)
Activation of a sperm cell to fertilize
an egg cell. p. 841
capillaries
(kap
ı˘-ler
e
¯z)
A small blood
vessel that connects an arteriole and
a venule. p. 576
bicarbonate buffer system
(bi-kar
bo-na
¯t
buf
er sis
tem)
Mixture of carbonic
acid and sodium bicarbonate that
weakens a strong base and a strong
acid, respectively; resists a change in
pH. p. 821
bicarbonate ion
(bi-kar
bon-a
¯t i
on)
HCO
3
. p. 766
bicuspid tooth
(bi-kus
pid tooth)
Premolar specialized for grinding
hard particles of food. p. 658
bile
(bı¯l)
±luid secreted by the liver
and stored in the gallbladder. p. 675
bile duct
(bı¯l dukt)
Tube that
transports bile from the cystic duct
and common hepatic duct to the
duodenum. p. 677
bilirubin
(bil
ı˘-roo
bin)
A bile
pigment produced from hemoglobin
breakdown. p. 530
biliverdin
(bil
ı˘-ver
din)
A bile
pigment produced from hemoglobin
breakdown. p. 530
biochemistry
(bi
o-kem
is-tre)
Branch
of science dealing with the chemistry
of living organisms. p. 51
biotin
(bi
o-tin)
A water-soluble
vitamin; member of the vitamin B
complex. p. 716
bipolar neuron
(bi-po
lar nu
ron)
A nerve cell whose cell body has only
one axon and one dendrite. p. 360
blastocyst
(blas
to-sist)
Early stage of
prenatal development when the
embryo is a hollow ball of cells.
p. 879
blood
(blud)
Cells in a liquid matrix
that circulate through the heart
and vessels carrying substances
throughout the body. p. 162
B lymphocyte
(B lim
fo-sı¯t)
Lymphocyte
that produces and secretes antibodies
that bind and destroy nonself
molecules; B cell. p. 628
BMI
Body mass index. p. 708
BMR
Basal metabolic rate. p. 500
body mass index
(bo
˘de
¯ mas in
-dex)
A measure of relative weight
(underweight, normal weight,
overweight, obesity) calculated
as weight in kilograms divided by
the square of height in meters; BMI.
p. 708
bolus
(bo
lus)
Mass of food passing
through the gastrointestinal tract.
p. 664
bond
(bond)
Connection between
atoms in a compound. p. 55
bone
(bo
¯n)
Part of the skeleton
composed of cells and inorganic,
mineral matrix; also a connective
tissue. p. 160
brachial
(bra
ke-al)
Pertaining to the
arm. p. 23
autosome
(aw
to-so
¯m)
A chromosome
that does not include a gene that
determines sex. p. 918
AV bundle
(bun
dl)
Atrioventricular
bundle. p. 567
AV node
(no
¯d)
Atrioventricular node.
p. 566
axial
(ak
se-al)
Pertaining to the head,
neck, and trunk. p. 12
axial skeleton
(ak
se-al skel
e
˘-ton)
Part
of the skeleton that supports and
protects the organs of the head,
neck, and trunk. p. 206
axillary
(ak
sı˘-ler
e)
Pertaining to the
armpit. p. 23
axon
(ak
son)
A nerve F
ber; conducts a
nerve impulse away from a neuron
cell body. p. 354
axonal transport
(ak
so-nal trans
port)
Transport of substances from
the neuron cell body to an axon
terminal. p. 356
B
ball-and-socket joint
(bawl-and-sok
et
joint)
A bone with a spherical
mass on one end joined with a bone
that has a complementary hollow
depression. Also called a spheroidal
joint. p. 265
baroreceptor
(bar
o-re-sep
tor)
Sensory
receptor in the blood vessel wall
stimulated by changes in pressure
(pressoreceptor). p. 439
basal metabolic rate
(ba
sal met
ah-bo
lic
ra
¯t)
Rate of metabolic reactions
when the body is at rest; BMR.
p. 500
basal nucleus
(bas
al nu
kle-us)
Mass
of gray matter deep within a cerebral
hemisphere of the brain. p. 404
base
(ba
¯s)
Substance that ionizes in
water, releasing hydroxide ions
(OH
) or other ions that combine
with hydrogen ions. p. 59
basement membrane
(ba
¯s
ment
mem
bra
¯n)
Layer of nonliving
material that anchors epithelial
tissue to underlying connective
tissue. p. 144
basophil
(ba
so-F
l)
White blood cell
containing cytoplasmic granules that
stain with basic dye. p. 531
beta oxidation
(ba
tah ok
sı˘-da
shun)
Chemical process that breaks fatty
acids down into molecules of acetyl
which bind coenzyme A, entering
the citric acid cycle. p. 702
beta receptor
(ba
tah re-sep
tor)
Receptor on an effector cell
membrane that combines mainly
with epinephrine and only slightly
with norepinephrine. p. 430
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