953
GLOSSARY
atria
(a
tre-ah)
Upper chambers of the
heart. p. 555
atrial natriuretic peptide
(a
tre
¯-al
na
tre
¯-u-ret
ik pep
tı¯d)
Family of
polypeptide hormones that increase
sodium excretion. p. 513
atrioventricular bundle
(a
tre-o-
ven-trik
u-lar bun
dl)
Group of
specialized ±
bers that conducts
impulses from the atrioventricular
node to the Purkinje ±
bers in the
ventricular muscle of the heart;
AV bundle; bundle of His. p. 567
atrioventricular node
(a
tre-o-ven-
trik
u-lar no
¯d)
Specialized mass
of cardiac muscle ±
bers in the
interatrial septum of the heart;
transmits cardiac impulses from the
sinoatrial node to the AV bundle;
AV node. p. 566
atrioventricular orif
ce
(a
tre-o-ven-
trik
u-lar or
i-± s)
Opening between
the atrium and the ventricle on each
side of the heart. p. 555
atrioventricular sulcus
(a
tre-o-ven-
trik
u-lar sul
kus)
Groove on the
surface of the heart that marks the
division between an atrium and a
ventricle. p. 556
atrioventricular valve
(a
tre-o-ven-trik
u-
lar valv)
Cardiac valve between an
atrium and a ventricle. p. 555
atrophy
(at
ro-fe)
Shrinking of an organ
or tissue. p. 300
auditory
(aw
di-to
re)
Pertaining to the
ear or the sense of hearing. p. 451
auditory ossicle
(aw
di-to
re os
i-kl)
A bone of the middle ear. p. 451
auditory tube
(aw
di-to
re tu
¯b)
Tube
that connects the middle ear cavity
to the pharynx; eustachian tube.
p. 453
auricles
(aw
ri-klz)
Earlike structures;
the parts of the heart that form the
walls of the atria. p. 450
autoantibody
(aw
to-an
tı˘-bod
e)
An
antibody produced against oneself.
p. 641
autocrine
(aw
to-krin)
Hormone that
acts on the same cell that secreted
it. p. 483
autoimmunity
(aw
to-ı˘-mu
¯
ni-te
¯)
An
immune response against a person
s
own tissues. p. 639
autonomic nervous system
(aw
to-
nom
ik ner
vus sis
tem)
Part of the
nervous system that controls the
viscera. p. 356
autoregulation
(aw
to-reg
u-la
shun)
Ability of an organ or tissue to
maintain a constant blood fl
ow
despite changing arterial blood
pressure. p. 790
artery
(ar
ter-e)
Vessel that transports
blood from the heart. p. 574
arthritis
(ar-thri
tis)
Joint infl ammation.
p. 278
articular cartilage
(ar-tik
u-lar kar
tı˘-lij)
Hyaline cartilage that covers the
ends of bones in synovial joints.
p. 194
articulation
(ar-tik
u-la
shun)
The
union of two or more bones; a joint.
p. 261
ascending colon
(ah-send
ing ko
lon)
Portion of the large intestine that
passes upward on the right side of
the abdomen from the cecum to the
lower edge of the liver. p. 687
ascending tract
(ah-send
ing trakt)
Group of nerve ±
bers in the spinal
cord that transmits sensory impulses
upward to the brain. p. 393
ascites
(ah-si
tez)
Serous fl
uid
accumulation in the abdominal
cavity. p. 726
ascorbic acid
(as-kor
bik as
id)
One of
the water-soluble vitamins; vitamin
C. p. 716
assimilation
(ah-sim
ı˘-la
shun)
Chemically changing absorbed
substances in the body. p. 8
association area
(ah-so
se-a
shun a
re-ah)
Region of the cerebral cortex
controlling memory, reasoning,
judgment, and emotions. p. 402
astigmatism
(ah-stig
mah-tizm)
Visual
defect due to errors in refraction
caused by abnormal curvatures in
the surface of the cornea or lens.
p. 472
astrocyte
(as
tro-sı¯t)
Type of neuroglia
that connects neurons to blood
vessels and provides growth factors.
p. 361
atherosclerosis
(ath
er-o-skle
˘-ro
sis)
Condition in which fatty substances
accumulate on the inner linings of
arteries. p. 542
atmospheric pressure
(at
mos-fer
ik
presh
ur)
Pressure exerted by the
weight of the air; about 760 mm of
mercury at sea level. p. 8
atom
(at
om)
Smallest particle of an
element that has the properties of
that element. p. 4
atomic number
(ah-tom
ik num
ber)
Number of protons in an atom of an
element. p. 52
atomic weight
(ah-tom
ik wa
¯t)
Number
of protons plus the number of
neutrons in an atom of an element.
p. 52
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate. p. 84
ATPase
Enzyme that releases the
energy in terminal phosphate bonds
of ATP. p. 291
aorta
(a-or
tah)
Major systemic artery
that receives blood from the left
ventricle. p. 592
aortic body
(a-or
tik bod
e)
Structure
associated with the wall of the aorta
that contains chemoreceptors. p. 592
aortic sinus
(a-or
tik si
nus)
Swelling in
the aortic wall, behind each cusp of
the semilunar valve, that contains
baroreceptors. p. 592
aortic valve
(a-or
tik valv)
Flaplike
structures in the wall of the aorta
near its origin that prevent blood
from returning to the left ventricle of
the heart. p. 557
apocrine gland
(ap
o-krin gland)
Type
of gland whose secretions have parts
of secretory cells. p. 150
aponeurosis
(ap
o-nu-ro
sis)
Sheet
of connective tissue that attaches
muscles to bone and fascia. p. 285
apoptosis
(ap
o-to
-sis)
Programmed
cell death. p. 910
appendicular
(ap
en-dik
u-lar)
Pertaining to the upper or lower
limbs. p. 12
appendix
(ah-pen
diks)
Small, tubular
appendage of lymphatic tissue that
extends outward from the cecum;
vermiform appendix. p. 687
aqueous humor
(a
kwe-us hu
mor)
Watery fl
uid that ±
lls the anterior
cavity of the eye. p. 467
arachnoid granulation
(ah-rak
noid
gran
u-la
shun)
Fingerlike
structure that projects from the
subarachnoid space of the meninges
into blood-±
lled dural sinuses and
reabsorbs cerebrospinal fl
uid. p. 386
arachnoid mater
(ah-rak
noid ma
ter)
Delicate, weblike middle layer of the
meninges. p. 385
arbor vitae
(ar
bor vi
ta)
Treelike
pattern of white matter in a section
of cerebellum. p. 410
areola
(ah-re
o-lah)
Pigmented region
surrounding the nipple of the
mammary gland or breast. p. 862
areolar tissue
(ah-re
o-lar tish
u)
Connective tissue composed mainly
of ±
bers. p. 156
arrector pili muscle
(ah-rek
tor pil
i
mus
l)
Smooth muscle in the skin
associated with a hair follicle. p. 179
arrhythmia
(ah-rith
me-ah)
An
irregular heartbeat. p. 572
arteriole
(ar-te
re-o
¯l)
Small branch of
an artery that communicates with a
capillary network. p. 574
arteriosclerosis
(ar-te
re-o-skle
˘-ro
sis)
Condition in which the walls of
arteries thicken and lose their
elasticity; hardening of the arteries.
p. 582
previous page 983 David Shier Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology 2010 read online next page 985 David Shier Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology 2010 read online Home Toggle text on/off