952
GLOSSARY
angiotensin I
(an
je-o-ten
sin wun)
A peptide released when angioten-
sinogen is decomposed. p. 506
angiotensin II
(an
je-o-ten
sin too)
Vasoconstricting biochemical
released in response to reduced
blood fl
ow to the kidneys, elevating
blood pressure. p. 506
angiotensinogen
(an
je-o-ten-sin
o-jen)
Liver serum globulin that renin
converts to angiotensin I. p. 506
anion
(an
i-on)
Atom carrying a
negative charge due to one or more
extra electrons. p. 55
antagonist
(an-tag
o-nist)
A muscle that
opposes a prime mover. p. 304
antebrachial
(an
te-bra
ke-al)
Pertaining to the forearm. p. 23
antecubital
(an
te-ku
bi-tal)
Region in
front of the elbow joint. p. 23
anterior
(an-te
re-or)
Pertaining to the
front. p. 21
anterior pituitary
(an-te
re-or pi-tu
i-ta
¯r
e)
Front lobe of the pituitary gland.
p. 492
antibody
(an
ti-bod
e)
Protein
(immunoglobulin) that B cells of the
immune system produce in response
to a nonself antigen; it reacts with
the antigen. p. 532
anticoagulant
(an
tı˘-ko-ag
u-lant)
Biochemical that inhibits blood
clotting. p. 543
anticodon
(an
ti-ko
don)
Three
contiguous nucleotides of a
transfer RNA molecule that are
complementary to a speci±
c mRNA
codon. p. 131
antidiuretic hormone
(an
tı˘-di
u-ret
ik
hor
mo
¯n)
Hormone of the posterior
pituitary gland that enhances water
conservation in the kidneys; ADH,
vasopressin. p. 498
antigen
(an
tı˘-jen)
Chemical that
stimulates B lymphocytes to produce
antibodies. p. 544
antigen-binding site
(an
tı˘-jen-bı¯n
ding
sı¯t)
Specialized ends of antibodies
that bind speci±
c antigens. p. 634
antigen-presenting cell
(an
tı˘-jen-pre-
sen
ting cel)
The cell that displays
the antigen to the cells of the
immune system so they can defend
the body against that particular
antigen. p. 630
antioxidant
(an
tı˘-ok
sı˘-dant)
Substance
that inhibits oxidation of another
substance. p. 710
antithrombin
(an
tı˘-throm
bin)
Substance that inhibits the action
of thrombin and thus inhibits blood
clotting. p. 542
anus
(a
nus)
Inferior outlet of the
digestive tube. p. 688
amacrine cell
(am
ah-krin sel)
Retinal
neuron whose ± bers pass laterally
between other retinal cells. p. 469
amine
(am
in)
Type of nitrogen-
containing organic compound,
including hormones from the
adrenal medulla. p. 485
amino acid
(ah-me
no as
id)
Organic
compound that includes an amino
group (–NH
2
) and a carboxyl group
(–COOH); the structural unit of a
protein molecule. p. 65
amniocentesis
(am
ne-o-sen-te
sis)
Removal of a sample of amniotic
fl uid through the abdominal wall
of a pregnant woman. Fetal cells
in it are cultured and checked for
chromosome complement. p. 931
amnion
(am
ne-on)
Extraembryonic
membrane that encircles a fetus and
contains amniotic fl uid. p. 888
amniotic cavity
(am
ne-ot
ik kav
ı˘-te)
Fluid-±
lled space within the amnion.
p. 885
amniotic fl
uid
(am
ne-ot
ik fl
oo
id)
Fluid in the amniotic cavity that
surrounds the developing fetus.
p. 888
ampulla
(am-pul
ah)
Expansion at the
end of each semicircular canal that
houses a crista ampullaris. p. 460
amylase
(am
ı˘-la
¯s)
Enzyme that
hydrolyzes polysaccharides. p. 116
anabolism
(ah-nab
o-liz
em)
Synthesis
of larger molecules from smaller
ones; anabolic metabolism. p. 115
anaerobic
(an-a
er-o
¯b
ik)
Absence of
molecular oxygen. p. 120
anal canal
(a
nal kah-nal
)
The most
distal two or three inches of the
large intestine that open to the
outside as the anus. p. 688
anaphase
(an
ah-fa
¯z)
Stage in mitosis
when replicated chromosomes
separate and move to opposite poles
of the cell. p. 101
anatomical position
(an
ah-tom
ı˘-kal
po-zish
un)
Body posture with the
body erect, face forward, arms at the
sides with palms facing forward, and
toes pointing straight ahead. p. 20
anatomy
(ah-nat
o-me)
Branch of
science dealing with the form and
structure of body parts. p. 4
androgen
(an
dro-jen)
Male sex
hormone such as testosterone. p. 845
anemia
(ah-ne
me-ah)
De± ciency of red
blood cells or hemoglobin. p. 529
aneuploid
(an
u-ploid)
Cell with one or
more extra or missing chromosomes.
p. 929
aneurysm
(an
u-rizm) Saclike expansion
of a blood vessel wall. p. 582
aerobic
(a
er-o
¯b
ik)
Presence of
molecular oxygen. p. 120
afferent
(af
er-ent)
Conducting toward
a central part of a structure. p. 779
afterload
(af
ter-lo
¯d)
The force required
to open the semilunar valves to eject
blood from the ventricles. p. 586
agglutination
(ah-gloo
ti-na
shun)
Clumping of blood cells in response
to a reaction between an antibody
and an antigen. p. 544
agonist
(ag
o-nist)
A prime mover. p. 304
agranulocyte
(a-gran
u-lo-sı¯t)
Nongranular leukocyte. p. 530
albumin
(al-bu
min)
Plasma protein
that helps regulate the osmotic
concentration of blood. p. 535
aldosterone
(al-dos
ter-o
¯n)
Adrenal
cortical hormone that regulates
sodium and potassium ion
concentrations and fl
uid volume.
p. 486
alimentary canal
(al
i-men
tar-e kah-
nal
)
Tubular part of the digestive
tract from the mouth to the anus.
p. 652
alkaline
(al
kah-lı¯n)
Pertaining to or
having the properties of a base.
p. 60
alkaloid
(al
kah-loid)
Group of organic
compounds that are bitter and have
toxic effects. p. 450
alkalosis
(al
kah-lo
sis)
Increase in the
pH of body fl
uids above 7.45. p. 60
allantois
(ah-lan
to-is)
Structure in the
embryo from which the umbilical
cord blood vessels develop. p. 891
allele
(ah-le
¯l)
One of two or more
different forms of a gene. p. 919
allergen
(al
er-jen)
A nonself substance
that can provoke an allergic
reaction. p. 639
all-or-none response
(al
or-nun
re-spons
)
Complete response of a muscle ±
ber
or neuron to a stimulus of threshold
strength. p. 297
alpha receptor
(al
fah re-sep
tor)
Receptor on effector cell membrane
that binds epinephrine or
norepinephrine. p. 430
alveolar duct
(al-ve
o-lar dukt)
Fine
tube that conducts inhaled air to an
air sac of the lungs. p. 743
alveolar pore
(al-ve
o-lar po
¯r)
Small
opening in the wall of an air sac that
permits air to pass from one alveolus
to another. p. 759
alveolar process
(al-ve
o-lar pros
es)
Projection on the border of the jaw
that holds the bony sockets of the
teeth. p. 213
alveolus
(al-ve
o-lus)
Air sac of a lung;
a saclike structure (pl.,
alveoli
).
p. 743
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