943
APPENDIX B
Common Tests Performed on Urine
Test
Normal Values* (Adult)
Clinical SigniF
cance
Acetone and acetoacetate
0
Values increase in diabetic acidosis.
Albumin, qualitative
0 to trace
Values increase in kidney disease, hypertension, and heart failure.
Ammonia
20–70 mEq/L
Values increase in diabetes mellitus and liver diseases.
Bacterial count
Under 10,000/mL
Values increase in urinary tract infection.
Bile and bilirubin
0
Values increase in melanoma and biliary tract obstruction.
Calcium
Under 300 mg/24 hr
Values increase in hyperparathyroidism and decrease in hypoparathyroidism.
Creatinine (24 hours)
15–25 mg/kg body weight/day
Values increase in infections, and decrease in muscular atrophy, anemia, leukemia, and
kidney diseases.
Creatinine clearance (24 hours)
100–140 mL/min
Values increase in renal diseases.
Glucose
0
Values increase in diabetes mellitus and various pituitary gland disorders.
Hemoglobin
0
Blood may occur in urine as a result of extensive burns, crushing injuries, hemolytic
anemia, or blood transfusion reactions.
17-hydroxycorticosteroids
3–8 mg/24 hr
Values increase in Cushing syndrome and decrease in Addison disease.
Osmolality
850 mOsm/kg
Values increase in hepatic cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, and Addison disease. They
decrease in hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, and diabetes insipidus.
pH
4.6–8.0
Values increase in urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure. They decrease in
diabetes mellitus, emphysema, and starvation.
Phenylpyruvic acid
0
Values increase in phenylketonuria.
SpeciF
c gravity (SG)
1.003–1.035
Values increase in diabetes mellitus, nephrosis, and dehydration. They decrease in diabetes
insipidus, glomerulonephritis, and severe renal injury.
Urea
25–35 g/24 hr
Values increase as a result of excessive protein breakdown. They decrease as a result of
impaired renal function.
Urea clearance
Over 40 mL blood cleared of
urea/min
Values increase in renal diseases.
Uric acid
0.6–1.0 g/24 hr as urate
Values increase in gout and decrease in various kidney diseases.
Urobilinogen
0–4 mg/24 hr
Values increase in liver diseases and hemolytic anemia. They decrease in complete biliary
obstruction and severe diarrhea.
*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.
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