941
APPENDIX B
Common Tests Performed on Blood—
continued
Test
Normal Values* (Adult)
Clinical SigniF
cance
Hemoglobin (whole blood)
Men: 14–18 g/100 mL
Women: 12–16 g/100 mL
Children: 11.2–16.5 g/100 mL
(varies with age)
Values increase in polycythemia, obstructive pulmonary diseases, congestive heart failure,
and at high altitudes. They decrease in anemia, pregnancy, and as a result of severe
hemorrhage or excessive F
uid intake.
Iron (serum)
50–150 µg/100 mL
Values increase in various anemias and liver disease. They decrease in iron-de±
ciency
anemia.
Iron-binding capacity (serum)
250–410 µg/100 mL
Values increase in iron-de±
ciency anemia and pregnancy. They decrease in pernicious
anemia, liver disease, and chronic infections.
Lactic acid (whole blood)
0.6–1.8 mEq/L
Values increase with muscular activity and in congestive heart failure, severe hemorrhage,
and shock.
Lactic dehydrogenase, or LDH
(serum)
70–200 U/L
Values increase in pernicious anemia, myocardial infarction, liver disease, acute leukemia,
and widespread carcinoma.
Lipids, total (serum)
450–850 mg/100 mL
Values increase in hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and nephritis. They decrease in
hyperthyroidism.
Magnesium
1.3–2.1 mEq/L
Values increase in renal failure, hypothyroidism, and Addison disease. They decrease in
renal disease, liver disease, and pancreatitis.
Mean corpuscular
hemoglobin (MCH)
26–32 pg/RBC
Values increase in macrocytic anemia. They decrease in microcytic anemia.
Mean corpuscular volume
(MCV)
86–98 µ mm
3
/RBC
Values increase in liver disease and pernicious anemia. They decrease in iron-de±
ciency
anemia.
Osmolality
275–295 mOsm/kg
Values increase in dehydration, hypercalcemia, and diabetes mellitus. They decrease in
hyponatremia, Addison disease, and water intoxication.
Oxygen saturation (whole
blood)
Arterial: 96–100%
Venous: 60–85%
Values increase in polycythemia and decrease in anemia and obstructive pulmonary
diseases.
P
CO
2
35–45 mmHg
Values increase in respiratory diseases, intestinal obstruction, and vomiting. They decrease
in acidosis, nephritis, and diarrhea.
pH (whole blood)
7.35–7.45
Values increase due to mild vomiting, Cushing syndrome, and hyperventilation. They
decrease as a result of hypoventilation, severe diarrhea, Addison disease, and diabetic
acidosis.
P
O
2
75–100 mmHg
Values increase in polycythemia. They decrease in anemia and obstructive pulmonary
diseases.
Phosphatase acid (serum)
Men: 0.13–0.63 Sigma U/mL
Women: 0.01–0.56 Sigma U/mL
Values increase in cancer of the prostate gland, hyperparathyroidism, certain liver
diseases, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism.
Phosphatase, alkaline (serum)
Adults: 13–39 U/L
Children: up to 104 U/L
Values increase in hyperparathyroidism (and in other conditions that promote resorption
of bone), liver diseases, and pregnancy.
Phosphorus (serum)
3.0–4.5 mg/100 mL
Values increase in kidney diseases, hypoparathyroidism, acromegaly, and
hypervitaminosis D. They decrease in hyperparathyroidism.
Platelet count (whole blood)
150,000–350,000/µL
Values increase in polycythemia and certain anemias. They decrease in acute leukemia
and aplastic anemia.
Potassium (serum)
3.5–5.0 mEq/L
Values increase in Addison disease, hypoventilation, and conditions that cause severe
cellular destruction. They decrease in diarrhea, vomiting, diabetic acidosis, and chronic
kidney disease.
Protein, total (serum)
6.0–8.4 g/100 mL
Values increase in severe dehydration and shock. They decrease in severe malnutrition
and hemorrhage.
Prothrombin time (serum)
12–14 sec (one stage)
Values increase in certain hemorrhagic diseases, liver disease, vitamin K de±
ciency, and
following the use of various drugs.
Red cell count (whole blood)
Men: 4,600,000–6,200,000/µL
Women: 4,200,000–5,400,000/µL
Children: 4,500,000–5,100,000/µL
(varies with age)
Values increase as a result of severe dehydration or diarrhea, and decrease in anemia,
leukemia, and following severe hemorrhage.
Red cell distribution width
(RDW)
8.5–11.5 microns
Variation in cell width changes with pernicious anemia.
*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.
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