Common Tests Performed on Blood
Normal Values* (Adult)
3.2–5.5 g/100 mL
Values increase in multiple myeloma and decrease with proteinuria and as a result of severe
Albumin-globulin ratio, or
A/G ratio (serum)
1.5:1 to 2.5:1
Ratio of albumin to globulin is lowered in kidney diseases and malnutrition.
80–110 mg/100 mL
(12–55 µ mol/L)
Values increase in severe liver disease, pneumonia, shock, and congestive heart failure.
Values increase in acute pancreatitis, intestinal obstructions, and mumps. They decrease in
chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and toxemia of pregnancy.
Bilirubin, total (serum)
0–1.0 mg/100 mL
Values increase in conditions causing red blood cell destruction or biliary obstruction.
Blood urea nitrogen, or BUN
(plasma or serum)
8–25 mg/100 mL
Values increase in various kidney disorders and decrease in liver failure and during pregnancy.
8.5–10.5 mg/100 mL
Values increase in hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D, and respiratory conditions that
cause a rise in CO
concentration. They decrease in hypoparathyroidism, malnutrition, and
Carbon dioxide (serum)
Values increase in respiratory diseases, intestinal obstruction, and vomiting. They decrease in
acidosis, nephritis, and diarrhea.
Values increase in nephritis, Cushing syndrome, dehydration, and hyperventilation. They
decrease in metabolic acidosis, Addison disease, diarrhea, and following severe burns.
Cholesterol, total (serum)
120–220 mg/100 mL
(below 200 mg/100 mL
recommended by the American
Values increase in diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. They decrease in pernicious anemia,
hyperthyroidism, and acute infections.
Men: 30–70 mg/100 mL
Women: 30–80 mg/100 mL
Values increase in liver disease. Decreased values are associated with an increased risk of
62–185 mg/100 mL
Increased values are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
0.2–0.8 mg/100 mL
Values increase in muscular dystrophy, nephritis, severe damage to muscle tissue, and during
0.6–1.5 mg/100 mL
Values increase in various kidney diseases.
Men: 10–270 mg/100 mL
Women: 5–280 mg/100 mL
Values correlate with total body iron store. They decrease with iron de±
2.3–3.5 g/100 mL
Values increase as a result of chronic infections.
70–110 mg/100 mL
Values increase in diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, nephritis, hyperthyroidism, and pregnancy.
They decrease in hyperinsulinism, hypothyroidism, and Addison disease.
Hematocrit (whole blood)
(varies with age)
Values increase in polycythemia due to dehydration or shock. They decrease in anemia and
following severe hemorrhage.
*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.
Laboratory Tests of Clinical Importance