Common Tests Performed on Blood
Normal Values* (Adult)
Clinical SigniF
Albumin (serum)
3.2–5.5 g/100 mL
Values increase in multiple myeloma and decrease with proteinuria and as a result of severe
Albumin-globulin ratio, or
A/G ratio (serum)
1.5:1 to 2.5:1
Ratio of albumin to globulin is lowered in kidney diseases and malnutrition.
80–110 mg/100 mL
(12–55 µ mol/L)
Values increase in severe liver disease, pneumonia, shock, and congestive heart failure.
Amylase (serum)
4–25 units/mL
Values increase in acute pancreatitis, intestinal obstructions, and mumps. They decrease in
chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and toxemia of pregnancy.
Bilirubin, total (serum)
0–1.0 mg/100 mL
Values increase in conditions causing red blood cell destruction or biliary obstruction.
Blood urea nitrogen, or BUN
(plasma or serum)
8–25 mg/100 mL
(2.5–9.3 mmol/L)
Values increase in various kidney disorders and decrease in liver failure and during pregnancy.
Calcium (serum)
8.5–10.5 mg/100 mL
Values increase in hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D, and respiratory conditions that
cause a rise in CO
concentration. They decrease in hypoparathyroidism, malnutrition, and
severe diarrhea.
Carbon dioxide (serum)
24–30 mEq/L
Values increase in respiratory diseases, intestinal obstruction, and vomiting. They decrease in
acidosis, nephritis, and diarrhea.
Chloride (serum)
100–106 mEq/L
Values increase in nephritis, Cushing syndrome, dehydration, and hyperventilation. They
decrease in metabolic acidosis, Addison disease, diarrhea, and following severe burns.
Cholesterol, total (serum)
120–220 mg/100 mL
(below 200 mg/100 mL
recommended by the American
Heart Association)
Values increase in diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. They decrease in pernicious anemia,
hyperthyroidism, and acute infections.
Cholesterol, high-density
lipoprotein (HDL)
Men: 30–70 mg/100 mL
Women: 30–80 mg/100 mL
Values increase in liver disease. Decreased values are associated with an increased risk of
Cholesterol, low-density
lipoprotein (LDL)
62–185 mg/100 mL
Increased values are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
Creatine (serum)
0.2–0.8 mg/100 mL
Values increase in muscular dystrophy, nephritis, severe damage to muscle tissue, and during
Creatinine (serum)
0.6–1.5 mg/100 mL
Values increase in various kidney diseases.
Ferritin (serum)
Men: 10–270 mg/100 mL
Women: 5–280 mg/100 mL
Values correlate with total body iron store. They decrease with iron de±
Globulin (serum)
2.3–3.5 g/100 mL
Values increase as a result of chronic infections.
Glucose (plasma)
70–110 mg/100 mL
Values increase in diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, nephritis, hyperthyroidism, and pregnancy.
They decrease in hyperinsulinism, hypothyroidism, and Addison disease.
Hematocrit (whole blood)
Men: 40–54%
Women: 37–47%
Children: 35–49%
(varies with age)
Values increase in polycythemia due to dehydration or shock. They decrease in anemia and
following severe hemorrhage.
*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.
Laboratory Tests of Clinical Importance
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