LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
916
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
24.1 Introduction
1
Distinguish among genome, gene, and chromosome (p. 917)
2
Def
ne
genetics.
(p. 917)
3
Explain how the human genome is an economical storehouse oF
inFormation. (p. 917)
4
Explain how the environment in±
uences how genes are expressed.
(p. 918)
24.2 Modes of Inheritance
5
Describe a karyotype, and explain what it represents. (p. 918)
6
Explain the basis oF multiple alleles oF a gene. (p. 919)
7
Distinguish between heterozygous and homozygous; genotype and
phenotype; dominant and recessive. (p. 919)
8
Distinguish between autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant
inheritance. (p. 920)
24.3 Factors That A±
ect Expression of Single Genes
9
Explain how and why the same genotype can have di²
erent pheno-
types among individuals. (p. 924)
24.4 Multifactorial Traits
10
Describe and give examples oF how traits may be determined by
genes and the environment. (p. 924)
24.5 Matters of Sex
11
Describe how and when sex is determined. (p. 927)
12
Explain how X-linked inheritance di²
ers From inheritance oF autosom-
al traits. (p. 928)
13
Discuss Factors that a²
ect how phenotypes may di²
er between the
sexes. (p. 928)
24.6 Chromosome Disorders
14
Describe three ways that chromosomes can be abnormal. (p. 929)
15
Explain how prenatal tests provide inFormation about chromosomes.
(p. 931)
24.7 Gene Expression Explains Aspects of Anatomy and Physiology
16
Describe the type oF inFormation gene expression prof
ling provides.
(p. 933)
17
Explain how a DNA microarray works. (p. 933)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
chromo-,
color:
chromo
some—a “colored body” in a cell’s nucleus
that includes the genes.
gen-,
born:
gen
etics—the study oF inheritance oF characteristics.
hetero-,
other, di²
erent:
hetero
zygous—di²
erent members oF a
gene pair.
hom-,
same, common:
hom
ologous chromosomes—pair oF
chromosomes that have similar genetic inFormation.
karyo-,
nucleus:
karyo
type—a chart that displays chromosomes
in size order.
mono-,
one:
mono
somy—one type oF chromosome present in
only one copy.
phen-,
show, be seen:
phen
otype—physical appearance or health
condition that results From the way genes are expressed in
an individual.
tri-,
three:
tri
somy—three copies oF a chromosome.
Note the similar prof
les oF
the Four generations oF this
Family. We do not always
know how inFormation in
DNA sequences maniFests
as a trait such as Facial
structure.
Genetics
and Genomics
CHAPTER
24
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