875
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
23.1 Introduction
1
Distinguish between growth and development. (p. 876)
2
Distinguish between prenatal and postnatal. (p. 876)
23.2 Pregnancy
3
Describe fertilization. (p. 876)
23.3 Prenatal Period
4
List and provide details of the major events of cleavage. (p. 879)
5
Describe implantation. (p. 882)
6
Discuss the hormonal and other changes in the maternal body during
pregnancy. (p. 883)
7
Explain how the primary germ layers originate, and list the structures
each layer produces. (p. 885)
8
Describe the major events of the embryonic stage of development.
(p. 885)
9
Describe the formation and function of the placenta. (p. 888)
10
DeF
ne
fetus,
and describe the major events of the fetal stage of devel-
opment. (p. 892)
11
Trace the path of blood through the fetal cardiovascular system. (p. 897)
12
Explain the role of hormones in the birth process and milk production.
(p. 899)
23.4 Postnatal Period
13
Name the postnatal stages of development of a human, and indicate
the general characteristics of each stage. (p. 904)
14
Describe the major cardiovascular and physiological adjustments in
the newborn. (p. 905)
23.5 Aging
15
Distinguish between passive and active aging. (p. 909)
16
Contrast life span and life expectancy. (p. 911)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
allant-,
sausage:
allant
ois—tubelike structure extending from
the yolk sac into the connecting stalk of an embryo.
chorio-,
skin:
chorio
n—outermost membrane surrounding the
fetus and its membranes.
cleav-,
to divide:
cleav
age—period of development when a
zygote divides, producing increasingly smaller cells.
ect-,
outside:
ect
oderm—outermost germ layer of embryo.
lacun-,
pool:
lacun
a—space between the chorionic villi that F
lls
with maternal blood.
lanug-,
down:
lanug
o—F
ne hair covering the fetus.
mes-,
middle:
mes
oderm—middle germ layer of embryo.
morul-,
mulberry:
morul
a—embryonic structure consisting of a
solid ball of about sixteen cells that resembles a mulberry.
nat-,
to be born: pre
nat
al—period of development before birth.
ne-,
new, young:
ne
onatal—period of development including the
F
rst four weeks after birth.
post-,
after:
post
natal—period of development after birth.
pre-,
before:
pre
natal—period of development before birth.
sen-,
old:
sen
escence—process of growing old.
troph-,
well fed:
troph
oblast—cellular layer that surrounds the
inner cell mass and helps nourish it.
umbil-,
navel:
umbil
ical cord—structure attached to the fetal
navel (umbilicus) that connects the fetus to the placenta.
“Higher multiples” such
as quadruplets face
health risks, but twins
usually do very well.
Pregnancy,
Growth, and
Development
23
CHAPTER
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