867
CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO
Reproductive System
1. Burning sensation during urination
2. Pain in the lower abdomen
3. Fever or swollen glands in the neck
4. Discharge from the vagina or penis
5. Pain, itching, or infl
ammation in the genital or anal area
6. Pain during intercourse
7. Sores, blisters, bumps, or a rash anywhere on the body,
particularly the mouth or genitals
8. Itchy, runny eyes
Table 22.6
describes some prevalent sexually transmit-
ted infections.
22.8
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED
INFECTIONS
Sexually transmitted infection (STI)
is replacing the term
sexually transmitted disease (STD)
because a person can be
infected with a pathogen and transmit the pathogen to others,
but not develop symptoms of the disease. By the time symp-
toms appear, it is often too late to prevent complications or the
spread of the infection to sexual partners. Many STIs have simi-
lar symptoms, and some of the symptoms are also seen in dis-
eases or allergies not sexually related, so it is wise to consult a
physician if one or a combination of these symptoms appears:
FIGURE 22.36
Surgical methods of birth control. (
a
) In a vasectomy, each ductus (vas) deferens is cut and ligated (tied). (
b
) In a tubal ligation, each
uterine tube is cut and ligated.
Ovary
Uterus
Cervix
Vagina
Path of sperm
Cut and ligated
uterine tubes
Path of egg
Cut and ligated
ductus (vas) deferens
Scrotum
(a)
(b)
TABLE
22.6
|
Some Sexually Transmitted Infections
Disease
Cause
Symptoms
Number
of Reported
Cases (U.S.)
*
EF
ects on ±etus
Treatment
Complications
Acquired immune
deF
ciency syndrome
Human
immunodeF
ciency
virus
±ever, weakness, infections, cancer
450,000
Exposure to
HIV and other
infections
Drugs to treat or
delay symptoms;
no cure
Body overrun by
infection and cancer
Chlamydia infection
Chlamydia
trachomatis
bacteria
Painful urination and intercourse,
mucous discharge from penis or
vagina
1 million
(most cases go
undiagnosed)
Premature
birth, blindness,
pneumonia
Antibiotics
Pelvic in²
ammatory
disease, infertility,
arthritis, ectopic
pregnancy
Genital herpes
Herpes simplex 2
virus
Genital sores, fever
310,000
Brain damage,
stillbirth
Antiviral drug
(acyclovir)
Increased risk of
cervical cancer
Genital warts
Human papilloma
virus
Warts on genitals
422,000
None known
Chemical or
surgical removal
Increased risk of
cervical cancer
Gonorrhea
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae
bacteria
In women, usually none; in men,
painful urination
350,000
Blindness,
stillbirth
Antibiotics
Arthritis, rash,
infertility, pelvic
in²
ammatory disease
Syphilis
Treponema
pallidum
bacteria
Initial chancre sore usually on
genitals or mouth; rash 6 months
later; several years with no symptoms
as infection spreads; F
nally damage
to heart, liver, nerves, brain
37,000
Miscarriage,
premature birth,
birth defects,
stillbirth
Antibiotics
Dementia
*
2006 CDC statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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