ACID-BASE IMBALANCES (PAGE 824)
a. Respiratory acidosis results from increased levels
of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid.
b. Metabolic acidosis results from accumulation of
other acids or loss of bases.
a. Respiratory alkalosis results from loss of carbon
dioxide and carbonic acid.
b. Metabolic alkalosis results from loss of other acids
or gain of bases.
(4) If the carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion
concentrations are low, the respiratory center
c. The kidneys excrete hydrogen ions.
(1) Nephrons secrete hydrogen ions to regulate pH.
(2) Phosphates buffer hydrogen ions in urine.
(3) Ammonia produced by renal cells helps
transport hydrogen ions to the outside of the
d. Chemical buffers act rapidly; physiological buffers
act more slowly.
Explain how water balance and electrolyte balance are
interdependent. (p. 811)
21.2 Distribution of Body Fluids
The water and electrolytes enclosed by cell membranes
constitute the ______________. (p. 811)
a. transcellular f
b. intracellular f
c. extracellular f
Explain how the f
uids in the compartments diF
composition. (p. 812)
Describe how f
uid movements between the
compartments are controlled. (p. 812)
21.3 Water Balance
Prepare a list o± sources o± normal water gain and loss
to illustrate how the input o± water equals the output o±
water. (p. 813)
water of metabolism.
Explain how water intake is regulated. (p. 813)
Explain how the kidneys regulate water output. (p. 815)
21.4 Electrolyte Balance
Electrolytes in body f
uids o± importance to cellular
±unctions include ______________.
e. all o± the above
Explain how electrolyte intake is regulated. (p. 815)
List the routes by which electrolytes leave the body.
Explain how the adrenal cortex ±unctions to regulate
electrolyte balance. (p. 818)
Describe the role o± the parathyroid glands in regulating
electrolyte balance. (p. 818)
Describe the mechanisms by which the renal tubules
regulate electrolyte balance. (p. 818)
21.5 Acid-Base Balance
ve sources o± hydrogen ions in the body f
name an acid that originates ±rom each source. (p. 819)
________________ dissociate to release hydrogen ions
more completely. An example is hydrochloric acid.
________________ dissociate to release ±ewer hydroxide
ions. (p. 820)
Explain how an acid-base buF
er system ±unctions. (p. 820)
Explain how the bicarbonate buF
er system resists
changes in pH. (p. 821)
Explain why a protein has both acidic and basic
properties. (p. 821)
Describe how a protein ±unctions as a buF
Describe the role o± hemoglobin as a buF
er. (p. 822)
Explain how the respiratory system ±unctions in the
regulation o± acid-base balance. (p. 822)
Explain how the kidneys ±unction in the regulation o±
acid-base balance. (p. 823)
Describe the role o± ammonia in the transport o±
hydrogen ions to the outside o± the body. (p. 823)
Distinguish between a chemical buF
er system and a
er system. (p. 823)
21.6 Acid-Base Imbalances
Distinguish between respiratory and metabolic acid-base
imbalances. (p. 824)
Explain how the body compensates ±or acid-base
imbalances. (p. 825)