810
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
21.1 Introduction
1
Explain the balance concept. (p. 811)
2
Explain the importance of water and electrolyte balance. (p. 811)
21.2 Distribution of Body Fluids
3
Describe how body F
uids are distributed in compartments. (p. 811)
4
Explain how F
uid composition varies among compartments and how
F
uids move from one compartment to another. (p. 812)
21.3 Water Balance
5
List the routes by which water enters and leaves the body. (p. 813)
6
Explain the regulation of water input and water output. (p. 815)
21.4 Electrolyte Balance
7
List the routes by which electrolytes enter and leave the body. (p. 815)
8
Explain the regulation of the input and output of electrolytes. (p. 818)
21.5 Acid-Base Balance
9
Explain acid-base balance. (p. 819)
10
Identify how pH number describes the acidity and alkalinity of a body
F
uid. (p. 819)
11
List the major sources of hydrogen ions in the body. (p. 819)
12
Distinguish between strong acids and weak acids. (p. 820)
13
Explain how chemical bu±
er systems, the respiratory center, and the
kidneys keep the pH of body F
uids relatively constant. (p. 821)
21.6 Acid-Base Imbalances
14
Describe the causes and consequences of increase or decrease in
body F
uid pH. (p. 824)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
de-,
separation from:
de
hydration—removal of water from the
cells or body F
uids.
edem-,
swelling:
edem
a—swelling due to abnormal
accumulation of extracellular F
uid.
-emia,
a blood condition: hypoprotein
emia
—abnormally low
concentration of blood plasma proteins.
extra-,
outside:
extra
cellular F
uid—F
uid outside of the body cells.
im-
(or in-), not:
im
balance—condition in which factors are not in
equilibrium.
intra-,
within:
intra
cellular F
uid—F
uid in body cells.
neutr-,
neither one nor the other:
neutr
al—solution that is
neither acidic nor basic.
-osis,
a state of: acid
osis
—condition in which hydrogen ion
concentration is abnormally high.
-uria,
a urine condition: keto
uria
—ketone bodies in the urine.
Falsely colored scanning
electron micrograph of
glomerular podocytes
involved in the ±
ltration
of water and electrolytes
(5,700
×
).
LEARNING OUTCOMES
False
elect
glom
invo
of w
(5,7
Water,
Electrolyte,
and Acid-Base
Balance
CHAPTER
21
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