50
UNIT ONE
50
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
This partial model of DNA,
the blueprint for a human,
shows carbon atoms black,
oxygen red, nitrogen blue,
phosphorus yellow, and
hydrogen white.
Chemical Basis
of Life
CHAPTER
2
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
bio-,
life:
bio
chemistry—branch of science dealing with the
chemistry of life forms.
di-,
two:
di
saccharide—compound whose molecules are
composed of two sugar units bound together.
glyc-,
sweet:
glyc
ogen—complex carbohydrate composed of
glucose molecules bound together in a particular way.
iso-,
equal:
is
o
tope—atom that has the same atomic number as
another atom but a diF
erent atomic weight.
lip-,
fat:
lip
ids—group of organic compounds that includes fats.
-lyt,
dissolvable: electro
lyt
e—substance that dissolves in water
and releases ions.
mono-,
one:
mono
saccharide—compound whose molecule
consists of a single sugar unit.
nucle-,
kernel:
nucle
us—central core of an atom.
poly-,
many:
poly
unsaturated—molecule that has many double
bonds between its carbon atoms.
sacchar-,
sugar: mono
sacchar
ide—molecule consisting of a
single sugar unit.
syn-,
together:
syn
thesis—process by which substances are
united to form a new type of substance.
-valent,
having power: co
valent
bond—chemical bond produced
when two atoms share electrons.
50
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
2.1 Introduction
1
Give examples of how the study of living materials requires an under-
standing of chemistry. (p. 51)
2.2 Structure of Matter
2
Describe the relationships among matter, atoms, and compounds.
(p. 51)
3
Describe how atomic structure determines how atoms interact. (p. 52)
4
Explain how molecular and structural formulas symbolize the compo-
sition of compounds. (p. 53)
5
Describe three types of chemical reactions. (p. 58)
6
Describe the diF
erences among acids, bases, and buF
ers. (p. 59)
7
Explain the pH scale. (p. 59)
2.3 Chemical Constituents of Cells
8
List the major groups of inorganic chemicals common in cells and
explain the function(s) of each group. (p. 61)
9
Describe the general functions of the main classes of organic mol-
ecules in cells. (p. 61)
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