This partial model of DNA,
the blueprint for a human,
shows carbon atoms black,
oxygen red, nitrogen blue,
phosphorus yellow, and
chemistry—branch of science dealing with the
chemistry of life forms.
saccharide—compound whose molecules are
composed of two sugar units bound together.
ogen—complex carbohydrate composed of
glucose molecules bound together in a particular way.
tope—atom that has the same atomic number as
another atom but a diF
erent atomic weight.
ids—group of organic compounds that includes fats.
e—substance that dissolves in water
and releases ions.
saccharide—compound whose molecule
consists of a single sugar unit.
us—central core of an atom.
unsaturated—molecule that has many double
bonds between its carbon atoms.
ide—molecule consisting of a
single sugar unit.
thesis—process by which substances are
united to form a new type of substance.
having power: co
bond—chemical bond produced
when two atoms share electrons.
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
Give examples of how the study of living materials requires an under-
standing of chemistry. (p. 51)
2.2 Structure of Matter
Describe the relationships among matter, atoms, and compounds.
Describe how atomic structure determines how atoms interact. (p. 52)
Explain how molecular and structural formulas symbolize the compo-
sition of compounds. (p. 53)
Describe three types of chemical reactions. (p. 58)
Describe the diF
erences among acids, bases, and buF
ers. (p. 59)
Explain the pH scale. (p. 59)
2.3 Chemical Constituents of Cells
List the major groups of inorganic chemicals common in cells and
explain the function(s) of each group. (p. 61)
Describe the general functions of the main classes of organic mol-
ecules in cells. (p. 61)