774
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
20.1 Introduction
1
Name the organs of the urinary system and list their general func-
tions. (p. 775)
20.2 Kidneys
2
Describe the locations of the kidneys and the structure of the kidney.
(p. 776)
3
List the functions of the kidneys. (p. 777)
4
Trace the pathway of blood F
ow through the major vessels within a
kidney. (p. 779)
5
Describe a nephron and explain the functions of its major parts. (p. 779)
20.3 Urine Formation
6
Explain how glomerular ±
ltrate is produced and describe its composi-
tion. (p. 785)
7
Explain how various factors a²
ect the rate of glomerular ±
ltration and
identify ways that this rate is regulated. (p. 788)
8
Explain tubular reabsorption, and
its role in urine formation.
(p. 790)
9
Identify the changes in the osmotic concentration of the glomerular
±
ltrate as it passes through the renal tubule. (p. 792)
10
Explain tubular secretion, and
its role in urine formation.
(p. 793)
11
Identify the characteristics of a countercurrent mechanism, and ex-
plain its role in concentrating the urine. (p. 795)
12
Explain how the ±
nal composition of urine contributes to homeostasis.
(p. 796)
20.4 Elimination of Urine
13
Describe the structures of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
(p. 798)
14
Explain how micturition occurs, and how it is controlled. (p. 802)
20.5 Life-Span Changes
15
Describe how the components of the urinary system change with
age. (p. 803)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
af-,
to:
af
ferent arteriole—arteriole that leads to a nephron.
calyc-,
small cup: major
calyc
es—cuplike subdivisions of the renal
pelvis.
cort-,
covering: renal
cort
ex—shell of tissue surrounding the
inner region of a kidney.
cyst-,
bladder:
cyst
itis—inF
ammation of the bladder.
detrus-,
to force away:
detrus
or muscle—muscle in the bladder
wall that causes urine to be expelled.
glom-,
little ball:
glom
erulus—cluster of capillaries in a renal
corpuscle.
juxta-,
near to:
juxta
medullary nephron—nephron located near
the renal medulla.
mict-,
to pass urine:
mict
urition—expelling urine from the
bladder.
nephr-,
pertaining to the kidney:
nephr
on—functional unit of a
kidney.
papill-,
nipple: renal
papill
ae—small elevations that project into
a renal calyx.
prox-,
nearest:
prox
imal tubule—coiled portion of the renal
tubule leading from the glomerular capsule.
ren-,
kidney:
ren
al cortex—outer region of a kidney.
trigon-,
triangular shape:
trigon
e—triangular area on the internal
F
oor of the bladder.
A renal corpuscle is
a tangle of capillaries
(red) and a glomerular
capsule, where F ltration
of plasma begins urine
formation (1,200
×
).
LEARNING OUTCOMES
A re
a tan
(red
caps
of pl
form
Urinary System
CHAPTER
20
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