772
UNIT FIVE
19.5 Control of Breathing
25
Locate the respiratory areas and name their major
components. (p. 756)
26
Explain control of the basic rhythm of breathing. (p. 757)
27
Which one of the following is most important in forceful
breathing? (p. 757)
a. dorsal respiratory group
b. ventral respiratory group
c. pontine respiratory group
28
Explain the eF
ect increasing CO
2
levels have on the
central chemoreceptors. (p. 757)
29
Describe the function of the peripheral chemoreceptors
in the carotid and aortic bodies. (p. 758)
30
Describe the in±
ation re±
ex. (p. 758)
31
Describe the eF
ects of emotions on breathing. (p. 758)
32
Hyperventilation is which one of the following? (p. 758)
a. any increase in breathing
b. an increase in breathing that brings in oxygen too
quickly
c. an increase in breathing that eliminates CO
2
too
quickly
d. an increase in breathing that has no eF
ect on blood
gases
19.6 Alveolar Gas Exchanges
33
Describe the respiratory membrane. (p. 760)
34
Explain the relationship between the partial pressure of a
gas and its rate of diF
usion. (p. 760)
35
Summarize the exchange of oxygen and CO
2
across the
respiratory membrane. (p. 760)
19.7 Gas Transport
36
Describe how the blood transports oxygen. (p. 762)
37
List three factors that increase the release of oxygen from
hemoglobin. (p. 763)
38
Explain why carbon monoxide is toxic. (p. 764)
39
Give the percentages of the three ways CO
2
is transported
in blood. (p. 766)
40
Explain the function of carbonic anhydrase. (p. 766)
41
De²
ne chloride shift. (p. 766)
19.8 Life-Span Changes
42
Describe the changes that make it harder to breathe with
advancing years. (p. 769)
10
Name the successive branches of the bronchial tree,
from the primary bronchi to the alveoli, and identify their
functions. (p. 743)
11
Describe how the structure of the respiratory tubes
changes as the branches become ²
ner. (p. 744)
12
Distinguish between the visceral pleura and the parietal
pleura. (p. 746)
13
Name the lobes of the lungs and identify their locations.
(p. 747)
19.4 Breathing Mechanism
14
Compare the muscles used in a resting inspiration with
those used in a forced inspiration. (p. 747)
15
De²
ne
surface tension,
and explain how it works against
the breathing mechanism. (p. 750)
16
De²
ne
surfactant,
and explain its function. (p. 750)
17
De²
ne
compliance.
(p. 751)
18
Compare the muscles used (if any) in a resting expiration
with those used in a forced expiration. (p. 751)
19
Match the air volumes with their descriptions:
(p. 752)
(1) tidal volume
(2) inspiratory
reserve volume
(3) expiratory
reserve volume
(4) residual volume
A. air that remains after most
forceful expiration
B. volume of air, in addition to
resting tidal volume, that can
enter lungs
C. amount of air that enters and
leaves lungs during a respira-
tory cycle
D. volume of air, in addition to
resting tidal volume, that can
be expelled from the lungs
20
Distinguish between vital capacity and total lung
capacity. (p. 753)
21
Physiologic dead space is equal to ____________. (p. 753)
a. anatomic dead space
b. anatomic dead space plus alveolar dead space
c. alveolar dead space
22
Calculate both minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation
given the following: (p. 754)
respiratory rate = 12 breaths per minute
tidal volume = 500 mL per breath
physiologic dead space = 150 mL per breath
23
Explain the mechanisms of coughing and sneezing, and
give the functions of each. (p. 754)
24
Describe a possible function of yawning. (p. 755)
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