After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
Identify the general functions of the respiratory system. (p. 736)
19.2 Why We Breathe
Explain why respiration is necessary for cellular survival. (p. 736)
19.3 Organs of the Respiratory System
Name and describe the locations of the organs of the respiratory
system. (p. 737)
Describe the functions of each organ of the respiratory system.
19.4 Breathing Mechanism
Explain how inspiration and expiration are accomplished. (p. 750)
Describe each of the respiratory air volumes and capacities. (p. 752)
Show how alveolar ventilation rate is calculated. (p. 754)
List several nonrespiratory air movements, and explain how each
occurs. (p. 754)
19.5 Control of Breathing
Locate the respiratory areas, and explain control of normal breathing.
Discuss how various factors aF
ect breathing. (p. 757)
19.6 Alveolar Gas Exchanges
Describe the structure and function of the respiratory membrane.
Explain the importance of partial pressure in diF
usion of gases.
19.7 Gas Transport
Explain how the blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. (p. 762)
Describe gas exchange in the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
19.8 Life-Span Changes
Describe the eF
ects of aging on the respiratory system. (p. 767)
us—microscopic air sac in a lung.
us—primary branch of the trachea.
oma—type of cancer.
a—ridge of cartilage betweeen the right
and left bronchi.
oid cartilage—ring-shaped mass of cartilage at the
base of the larynx.
aplike structure that partially covers the
opening into the larynx during swallowing.
oglobin—pigment in red blood cells.
to breathe in:
ation—to take air into the lungs.
ic nerve—nerve associated with the
cervical plexuses that stimulates the muscle ²
bers of the
diaphragm to contract.
culosis—disease in which ²
form in the lungs.
Falsely colored electron
micrograph of the trachea
lining consisting of
cells (brown) amid ciliated
epithelium (red) (3,700