735
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
19.1 Introduction
1
Identify the general functions of the respiratory system. (p. 736)
19.2 Why We Breathe
2
Explain why respiration is necessary for cellular survival. (p. 736)
19.3 Organs of the Respiratory System
3
Name and describe the locations of the organs of the respiratory
system. (p. 737)
4
Describe the functions of each organ of the respiratory system.
(p. 737)
19.4 Breathing Mechanism
5
Explain how inspiration and expiration are accomplished. (p. 750)
6
Describe each of the respiratory air volumes and capacities. (p. 752)
7
Show how alveolar ventilation rate is calculated. (p. 754)
8
List several nonrespiratory air movements, and explain how each
occurs. (p. 754)
19.5 Control of Breathing
9
Locate the respiratory areas, and explain control of normal breathing.
(p. 755)
10
Discuss how various factors aF
ect breathing. (p. 757)
19.6 Alveolar Gas Exchanges
11
Describe the structure and function of the respiratory membrane.
(p. 760)
12
Explain the importance of partial pressure in diF
usion of gases.
(p. 760)
19.7 Gas Transport
13
Explain how the blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. (p. 762)
14
Describe gas exchange in the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
(p. 763)
19.8 Life-Span Changes
15
Describe the eF
ects of aging on the respiratory system. (p. 767)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
alveol-,
small cavity:
alveol
us—microscopic air sac in a lung.
bronch-,
windpipe:
bronch
us—primary branch of the trachea.
carcin-,
spreading sore:
carcin
oma—type of cancer.
carin-,
keel-like:
carin
a—ridge of cartilage betweeen the right
and left bronchi.
cric-,
ring:
cric
oid cartilage—ring-shaped mass of cartilage at the
base of the larynx.
epi-,
upon:
epi
glottis—±
aplike structure that partially covers the
opening into the larynx during swallowing.
hem-,
blood:
hem
oglobin—pigment in red blood cells.
inhal-,
to breathe in:
inhal
ation—to take air into the lungs.
phren-,
diaphragm:
phren
ic nerve—nerve associated with the
cervical plexuses that stimulates the muscle ²
bers of the
diaphragm to contract.
tuber-,
swelling:
tuber
culosis—disease in which ²
brous masses
form in the lungs.
Falsely colored electron
micrograph of the trachea
lining consisting of
mucous-secreting goblet
cells (brown) amid ciliated
epithelium (red) (3,700
×
).
LEARNING OUTCOMES
False
micr
linin
muc
cells
epith
Respiratory
System
CHAPTER
19
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