733
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN
Nutrition and Metabolism
18.7 Minerals
29
Match the minerals/elements with their functions, and
indicate whether each is a major mineral or a trace
element required for nutrition. Functions may be used
more than once, and more than one function may be
applied to a mineral or trace element. (pp. 717–722)
(1) calcium
A. Essential for the use of carbohydrates
(2) chlorine
B. Component of certain enzymes
(3) chromium
C. Component of tooth enamel
(4) cobalt
D. Component of teeth and bones
(5) copper
E. Helps maintain intracellular osmotic
(6) ±
uorine
pressure
(7) iodine
F. Essential part of certain amino acids
(8) iron
G. Helps maintain extracellular ±
uid
(9) magnesium
osmotic pressure
(10) manganese
H. Necessary for normal wound healing
(11) phosphorus
I. Component of cyanocobalamin
(12) potassium
J. Essential for synthesis of thyroid
(13) selenium
hormones
(14) sodium
K. Required in metabolic reactions
(15) sulfur
associated with ATP production
(16) zinc
L. Component of hemoglobin
M.
Essential for hemoglobin synthesis
and melanin production
N.
Required for cholesterol synthesis
and urea formation
18.8 Healthy Eating
30
De²
ne
adequate diet.
(p. 722)
31
Explain various methods to eat an adequate diet. (p. 722)
32
De²
ne
malnutrition.
(p. 723)
33
Contrast primary and secondary malnutrition. (p. 723)
34
Discuss bodily changes during starvation. (p. 723)
35
Distinguish among marasmus, kwashiorkor, anorexia
nervosa, and bulimia. (p. 726)
18.9 Life-Span Changes
36
Factors that may lead to inadequate nutrition later in life
include _________.
(p. 728)
a. medical conditions
b. social circumstances
c. economic circumstances
d. medication
e. all of the above
37
Name some medical conditions that a³
ect the ability to
obtain adequate nutrition as a person ages. (p. 728)
18.6 Vitamins
28
Match the vitamins with their general functions, and
indicate if the vitamin is fat-soluble or water-soluble.
Functions may be used more than once, and more than
one function may be applied to a vitamin. (pp. 709–716)
(1) vitamin A
A. Part of coenzyme A in
(2) vitamin B
1
(thiamine)
oxidation of carbohydrates
(3) vitamin B
2
(ribo±
avin) B. Required for ribose synthesis
(4) vitamin B
3
(niacin)
C. Necessary for synthesis of
(5) vitamin B
5
visual pigments
(pantothenic acid)
D. Required for synthesis of
(6) vitamin B
6
prothrombin
(7) vitamin B
12
E. Required to produce collagen
(cyanocobalamin)
F. Required to synthesize
(8) folacin
nucleic acids
(9) biotin
G. Promotes red blood cell
(10) vitamin C
production
(ascorbic acid)
H. Plays a role in myelin
(11) vitamin D
synthesis
(12) vitamin E
I.
Antioxidant,
helps stabilize
(13) vitamin K
cell membranes
J.
Promotes development of
teeth and bones
K.
Required to produce anti-
bodies
L. Required for cellular
reproduction
M.
Part of coenzymes to syn-
thesize proteins, fats, and
nucleic acids
OUTCOMES 4.3, 9.4, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.8
1. Which of the diets described in the following chart would be
most appropriate for an athlete training for a triathlon (biking,
swimming, running event)? What is a problem with all of
these diets for such a person?
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
OUTCOMES 4.3, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6
2. A young man takes several vitamin supplements each day,
claiming that they give him energy. Is he correct? Why or why
not?
OUTCOMES 13.9, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4
3. Why does the blood sugar concentration of a person whose
diet is low in carbohydrates remain stable?
Diet
Total Calories/Day
% Fat
% Carbohydrate
% Protein
Dean Ornish
1450
10–20
70
17
Jenny Craig
1450
25
60
15
Zone
1400
60
10
30
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