732
UNIT FIVE
4. Malnutrition
a. Poor nutrition is due to lack of foods or failure to
wisely use available foods.
b. Primary malnutrition is due to poor diet.
c. Secondary malnutrition is due to an individual
characteristic that makes a normal diet inadequate.
5. Starvation
a. A person can survive F
fty to seventy days without
food.
b. A starving body digests itself, starting with
carbohydrates, then fats, then proteins.
c. Symptoms include low blood pressure, slow pulse,
chills, dry skin, hair loss, and poor immunity.
±inally, vital organs cease to function.
d. Marasmus is lack of all nutrients.
e. Kwashiorkor is protein starvation.
f. Anorexia nervosa is a self-starvation eating
disorder.
g. Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by
bingeing and purging.
18.9
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 728)
1. Changing nutrition with age refl
ects medical
conditions and social and economic circumstances.
2. Basal metabolic rate rises in early childhood, declines,
then peaks again in adolescence, with decreasing
activity during adulthood.
3. Weight gain, at any age, occurs when energy in
exceeds energy out, and weight loss occurs when
energy out exceeds energy in.
f. Zinc
(1) Zinc is most concentrated in the liver, kidneys,
and brain.
(2) It is a component of several enzymes that take
part in digestion, respiration, and metabolism.
g. ±luorine
(1) The teeth concentrate fl uorine.
(2) It is incorporated into enamel and prevents
dental caries.
h. Selenium
(1) The liver and kidneys store selenium.
(2) It is a component of certain enzymes.
i. Chromium
(1) Chromium is widely distributed throughout
the body.
(2) It regulates glucose use.
18.8
HEALTHY EATING (PAGE 722)
1. An adequate diet provides sufF
cient energy and
essential nutrients to support optimal growth, as well
as maintenance and repair, of tissues.
2. Individual needs vary so greatly that it is not possible
to design a diet adequate for everyone.
3. Devices to help consumers make healthy food
choices include Recommended Daily Allowances,
Recommended Dietary Allowances, food group plans,
food pyramids, and food labels.
18.1 Introduction
1
Def
ne
nutrition
. (p. 699)
2
Contrast nutrients and essential nutrients. (p. 699)
3
Contrast leptin and ghrelin as they aF
ect appetite
control. (p. 700)
18.2–18.4
Carbohydrates–Proteins
4
Identi±y dietary sources o± carbohydrates. (p. 700)
5
Summarize the importance o± cellulose in the diet. (p. 701)
6
Explain what happens to excess glucose in the body.
(p. 701)
7
Explain why a temporary drop in blood glucose
concentration may impair nervous system ±unctioning.
(p. 701)
8
List some ±actors that aF
ect an individual’s need ±or
carbohydrates. (p. 702)
9
Identi±y dietary sources o± lipids. (p. 702)
10
Def
ne
triglyceride.
(p. 702)
11
Def
ne
beta oxidation.
(p. 702)
12
Explain how ±ats may provide energy. (p. 702)
13
Describe the liver’s role in ±at metabolism. (p. 703)
14
Review the major ±unctions o± cholesterol. (p. 703)
15
Def
ne
deamination,
and explain its importance. (p. 704)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
16
Identi±y dietary sources o± proteins. (p. 705)
17
Distinguish between essential and nonessential amino
acids. (p. 705)
18
Explain why all o± the essential amino acids must be
present ±or growth. (p. 705)
19
Distinguish between complete and incomplete proteins.
(p. 705)
20
___________________ is when the amount o± nitrogen
taken in is equal to the amount excreted. (p. 705)
21
Explain why a protein def
ciency may accompany edema.
(p. 706)
18.5 Energy Expenditures
22
Def
ne
calorie.
(p. 706)
23
Explain how the caloric values o± ±oods are determined.
(p. 706)
24
Def
ne
basal metabolic rate.
(p. 707)
25
List some o± the ±actors that eF
ect the BMR. (p. 707)
26
_________________ exists when caloric intake in the
±orm o± ±oods equals caloric output ±rom basal metabolic
rate and muscular activities. (p. 708)
27
Distinguish among desirable weight, overweight, and
obesity. (p. 708)
p 705
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