698
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
18.1 Introduction
1
Distinguish among nutrition, nutrients, and essential nutrients.
(p. 699)
2
Explain appetite control.(p. 699)
±18.2–18.4± Carbohydrates–Proteins
3
List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. (p. 700)
4
Describe how cells use carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. (p. 701)
5
Identify examples of positive and negative nitrogen balance. (p. 706)
18.5 Energy Expenditures
6
Explain how energy values of foods are determined. (p. 706)
7
Explain the factors that aF
ect an individual’s energy requirements.
(p. 707)
8
Contrast the physiological impact of positive and negative energy
balance. (p. 708)
9
Explain what is meant by desirable weight. (p. 708)
18.6 Vitamins
10
List the fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins and summarize the
general functions of each vitamin. (p. 709)
18.7 Minerals
11
Distinguish between a vitamin and a mineral. (p. 717)
12
List the major minerals and trace elements and summarize the gen-
eral functions of each. (p. 717)
18.8 Healthy Eating
13
Describe an adequate diet. (p. 722)
14
Distinguish between primary and secondary malnutrition. (p. 723)
18.9 Life-Span Changes
15
List the factors that may lead to inadequate nutrition later in life.
(p. 728)
People can satisfy
nutritional requirements
in a wide variety of
ways.
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
bas-,
base:
bas
al metabolic rate—metabolic rate of body under
resting (basal) conditions.
calor-,
heat:
calor
ie—unit used to measure heat or energy
content of foods.
carot-,
carrot:
carot
ene—yellowish plant pigment that imparts
the color of carrots and other yellowish plant tissues.
lip-,
fat:
lip
ids—fat or fatlike substance insoluble in water.
mal-,
bad, abnormal:
mal
nutrition—poor nutrition resulting from
lack of food or failure to adequately use available foods.
-meter,
measure: calori
meter
—instrument used to measure the
caloric content of food.
nutri-,
nourish:
nutri
ent—substance needed to nourish cells.
obes-,
fat:
obes
ity—condition in which the body has excess fat.
pell-,
skin:
pell
agra—vitamin de±
ciency condition characterized
by in²
ammation of the skin and other symptoms.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Peop
nutr
in a
way
Nutrition and
Metabolism
CHAPTER
18
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