After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
Distinguish among nutrition, nutrients, and essential nutrients.
Explain appetite control.(p. 699)
List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. (p. 700)
Describe how cells use carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. (p. 701)
Identify examples of positive and negative nitrogen balance. (p. 706)
18.5 Energy Expenditures
Explain how energy values of foods are determined. (p. 706)
Explain the factors that aF
ect an individual’s energy requirements.
Contrast the physiological impact of positive and negative energy
balance. (p. 708)
Explain what is meant by desirable weight. (p. 708)
List the fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins and summarize the
general functions of each vitamin. (p. 709)
Distinguish between a vitamin and a mineral. (p. 717)
List the major minerals and trace elements and summarize the gen-
eral functions of each. (p. 717)
18.8 Healthy Eating
Describe an adequate diet. (p. 722)
Distinguish between primary and secondary malnutrition. (p. 723)
18.9 Life-Span Changes
List the factors that may lead to inadequate nutrition later in life.
People can satisfy
in a wide variety of
al metabolic rate—metabolic rate of body under
resting (basal) conditions.
ie—unit used to measure heat or energy
content of foods.
ene—yellowish plant pigment that imparts
the color of carrots and other yellowish plant tissues.
ids—fat or fatlike substance insoluble in water.
nutrition—poor nutrition resulting from
lack of food or failure to adequately use available foods.
—instrument used to measure the
caloric content of food.
ent—substance needed to nourish cells.
ity—condition in which the body has excess fat.
ciency condition characterized
ammation of the skin and other symptoms.