696
UNIT FIVE
17.1 Introduction
1
Functions of the digestive system include ______. (p. 652)
a. ingestion
b. propulsion
c. mechanical and chemical digestion
d. absorption
e. all of the above
2
List the major parts of the alimentary canal, then
separately list the accessory organs of the digestive
system. (p. 652)
17.2 General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal
3
Contrast the composition of the four layers in the wall of
the alimentary canal. (p. 653)
4
Distinguish between mixing movements and propelling
movements. (p. 654)
5
De±
ne
peristalsis.
(p. 654)
6
Explain the relationship between peristalsis and receptive
relaxation. (p. 654)
7
Describe the e²
ects of parasympathetic and sympathetic
impulses on the alimentary canal. (p. 656)
17.3 Mouth
8
Discuss the functions of the mouth and its parts. (p. 656)
9
Distinguish among lingual, palatine, and pharyngeal
tonsils. (p. 657)
10
Compare the primary and secondary teeth. (p. 658)
11
The teeth best adapted for grasping and tearing food are
the _____________. (p. 659)
a. incisors
b. canines
c. premolars
d. molars
e. bicuspids
12
Describe the structure of a tooth. (p. 659)
13
Explain how a tooth is anchored in its socket. (p. 660)
17.4–17.10
Salivary Glands–Large Intestine
14
Discuss the digestive functions of saliva. (p. 660)
15
Describe the locations of the major salivary glands. (p. 661)
16
Explain how secretions of the salivary glands di²
er. (p. 661)
17
Name and locate the three major regions of the pharynx.
(p. 663)
18
Discuss the mechanism of swallowing. (p. 664)
19
Explain the function of the esophagus. (p. 665)
20
Describe the structure of the stomach. (p. 665)
21
Explain how gastric secretions are regulated. (p. 668)
22
Describe the mechanism the controls the emptying of the
stomach. (p. 669)
23
Describe the enterogastric re³
ex. (p. 670)
24
Explain the mechanism of vomiting. (p. 670)
25
Describe the location of the pancreas and the pancreatic
duct. (p. 671)
26
Explain how pancreatic secretions are regulated. (p. 672)
27
Describe the structure of the liver. (p. 673)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
28
Trace the path of bile from a bile canaliculus to the small
intestine by ±
lling in the blanks: bile canaliculi carry
secretions from liver cells to _____________, which
unite to form large bile ducts, which converge to form
___________ that merge to form the hepatic duct, which
joins the cystic duct to form the _____________, which
empties into the small intestine (duodenum). (p. 673)
29
List the major functions of the liver. (p. 673)
30
Describe the composition of bile. (p. 675)
31
Explain how gallstones form. (p. 677)
32
Explain the regulation of bile release. (p. 678)
33
Discuss the functions of bile salts. (p. 678)
34
Describe the locations of the parts of the small intestine.
(p. 680)
35
Match the organ or gland with the enzyme(s) it secretes.
Enzymes may be used more than once. An organ or gland
may secrete more than one enzyme. (pp. 661–683)
(1) salivary glands (serous cells)
A. peptidase
(2) stomach (chief cells)
B. amylase
(3) pancreas (acinar cells)
C. nuclease
(4) small intestine
D. lipase
(mucosal cells)
E. pepsin
F.
trypsin, chymotrypsin,
carboxypeptidase
G.
sucrase, maltase,
lactase
36
Match the enzyme(s) with its (their) function(s).
(pp. 661–683)
(1) peptidase
A. begins protein digestion
(2) amylase
B. breaks fats into fatty acids
(3) nuclease
and glycerol
(4) lipase
C. breaks down proteins into
(5) pepsin
peptides
(6) trypsin, chymotrypsin, D. breaks down starch and
carboxypeptidase
glycogen into disaccharides
(7) sucrase, maltase,
E. breaks down peptides into
lactase
amino acids
F.
breaks down nucleic acids
into nucleotides
G.
breaks down disaccharides
into monosaccharides
37
Explain the regulation of the secretions of the small
intestine. (p. 683)
38
Describe the functions of the intestinal villi. (p. 684)
39
Discuss absorption of amino acids, monosaccharides,
glycerol, fatty acids, electrolytes, and water from
substances in the small intestine. (p. 684)
40
Explain control of the movement of the intestinal
contents. (p. 686)
41
Describe the locations of the parts of the large intestine.
(p. 687)
42
Explain the general functions of the large intestine. (p. 688)
43
Explain the defecation re³
ex. (p. 690)
17.11 Life-Span Changes
44
How does digestive function change with age? (p. 690)
45
What are the e²
ects of altered rates of absorption, due to
aging, in the small intestine? (p. 690)
i
o the
ma
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