674
UNIT FIVE
pp. 702–703); synthesizing lipoproteins, phospholipids, and
cholesterol; and converting portions of carbohydrate and
protein molecules into fat molecules. The blood transports
fats synthesized in the liver to adipose tissue for storage.
The most vital liver functions are probably those related
to protein metabolism. They include deaminating amino acids;
forming urea (see chapter 18, p. 704); synthesizing plasma
proteins such as clotting factors (see chapter 14, p. 535); and
converting certain amino acids to other amino acids.
role in carbohydrate metabolism by helping maintain con-
centration of blood glucose within the normal range. Liver
cells responding to hormones such as insulin and glucagon
lower the blood glucose level by polymerizing glucose to gly-
cogen and raise the blood glucose level by breaking down
glycogen to glucose or by converting noncarbohydrates into
glucose.
The liver’s effects on lipid metabolism include oxidiz-
ing fatty acids at an especially high rate (see chapter 18,
FIGURE 17.25
This transverse section of the abdomen reveals the liver and other organs in the upper part of the abdominal cavity.
Vertebra
Right kidney
Pancreas
Large
intestine
Liver
Gallbladder
Small intestine
Peritoneal cavity
Parietal peritoneum
Plane of
section
Left
kidney
Spinal cord
Spleen
Rib
Small intestine
Large intestine
Stomach
Anterior
Visceral peritoneum
Aorta
Inferior
vena cava
FIGURE 17.26
Lobes of the liver, viewed (
a
) anteriorly and (
b
) inferiorly.
Right lobe
Coronary ligament
Inferior vena cava
Left lobe
Round
ligament
Inferior vena cava
Right lobe
Gallbladder
Quadrate lobe
Cystic duct
Left lobe
Hepatic duct
Hepatic artery
Hepatic portal
vein
Bile duct
Caudate lobe
Gallbladder
(b)
(a)
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