651
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
aliment-,
food:
aliment
ary canal—tubelike part of the digestive
system.
cari-,
decay: dental
cari
es—tooth decay.
cec-,
blindness:
cec
um—blind-ended sac at the origin of the large
intestine.
chym-,
juice:
chym
e—semiF
uid paste of food particles and
gastric juice formed in the stomach.
decidu-,
falling o±
:
decidu
ous teeth—teeth shed during
childhood.
frenul-,
bridle, restraint:
frenul
um—membranous fold that
anchors the tongue to the F
oor of the mouth.
gastr-,
stomach:
gastr
ic gland—part of the stomach that secretes
gastric juice.
hepat-,
liver:
hepat
ic duct—duct that carries bile from the liver to
the bile duct.
hiat-,
opening: esophageal
hiat
us—opening through which the
esophagus penetrates the diaphragm.
lingu-,
tongue:
lingu
al tonsil—mass of lymphatic tissue at the
root of the tongue.
peri-,
around:
peri
stalsis—wavelike ring of contraction that
moves material along the alimentary canal.
pyl-,
gatekeeper, door:
pyl
oric sphincter—muscle that serves as a
valve between the stomach and small intestine.
rect-,
straight:
rect
um—distal part of the large intestine.
sorpt-,
to soak up: ab
sorpt
ion—uptake of substances.
vill-,
hairy:
vill
i—tiny projections of mucous membrane in the
small intestine.
The gastric pit at the upper
left of this falsely colored
scanning electron micrograph
of a section of mucosa of
the stomach contains gastric
glands (1600
×
).
gastric pit at the uppe
The
Digestive
System
17
CHAPTER
UNIT V
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
17.1 Introduction
1
Describe the general functions of the digestive system. (p. 652)
2
Name the major organs of the digestive system. (p. 652)
17.2 General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal
3
Describe the structure of the wall of the alimentary canal. (p. 653)
4
Explain how the contents of the alimentary canal are mixed and
moved. (p. 654)
17.3 Mouth
5
Describe the functions of the structures associated with the mouth.
(p. 656)
6
Describe how di±
erent types of teeth are adapted for di±
erent func-
tions, and list the parts of a tooth. (p. 658)
17.4–17.10 Salivary Glands—Large Intestine
7
Locate each of the organs and glands; then describe the general func-
tion of each. (p. 660)
8
Identify the function of each enzyme secreted by the digestive organs
and glands. (p. 660)
9
Describe how digestive secretions are regulated. (p. 660)
10
Explain control of movement of material through the alimentary
canal. (p. 663)
11
Describe the mechanisms of swallowing, vomiting, and defecating.
(p. 664)
12
Explain how the products of digestion are absorbed. (p. 669)
±17.11± Life-Span±Changes
13
Describe aging-related changes in the digestive system. (p. 690)
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