649
CHAPTER SIXTEEN
Lymphatic System and Immunity
31
Match the types of antibodies with their function and/or
where each is found. (p. 635)
(1) associated with allergic reactions
A. IgA
(2) important in B cell activation, on surfaces
B. IgM
of most B cells
C. IgG
(3) activates complement, anti-A and
D. IgD
anti-B in blood
E. IgE
(4) eF
ective against bacteria, viruses, toxins
in plasma and tissue ±
uids
(5) in exocrine secretions, including breast milk
32
Describe three ways in which an antibody’s direct attack
on an antigen helps remove that antigen. (p. 635)
33
Explain the functions of complement. (p. 635)
34
Contrast a primary and a secondary immune response.
(p. 635)
35
Contrast active and passive immunity. (p. 638)
36
De²
ne
vaccine.
(p. 638)
37
Explain how a vaccine produces its eF
ect. (p. 638)
38
Describe how a fetus may obtain antibodies from
maternal blood. (p. 638)
39
Explain the relationship between an allergic reaction and
an immune response. (p. 639)
40
Distinguish between an antigen and an allergen. (p. 639)
41
Describe how an immediate-reaction allergic response
may occur. (p. 639)
42
List the major events leading to a delayed-reaction
allergic response. (p. 641)
43
Explain the relationship between tissue rejection and an
immune response. (p. 641)
44
Describe two methods used to reduce the severity of a
tissue rejection reaction. (p. 641)
45
Explain the goal of using immunosuppressive drugs
before a transplant. (p. 641)
46
Explain the relationship between autoimmunity and an
immune response. (p. 641)
16.10 Life-Span Changes
47
Explain the causes for a decline in the strength of the
immune response in the elderly. (p. 644)
16.8 Innate (NonspeciF
c) Defenses
13
De²
ne
species resistance.
(p. 626)
14
Identify the barriers that provide the body’s ²
rst line of
defense against infectious agents. (p. 626)
15
Describe how enzymatic actions function as defense
mechanisms against pathogens. (p. 626)
16
Distinguish among the chemical barriers (interferons,
defensins, collectins, and complement proteins), and give
examples of their diF
erent actions. (p. 626)
17
Describe natural killer cells and their actions. (p. 627)
18
List the major eF
ects of in±
ammation. (p. 627)
19
Identify the major phagocytic cells in the blood and other
tissues. (p. 627)
20
List possible causes of fever, and explain the bene²
ts of
fever. (p. 628)
16.9 Adaptive (SpeciF
c) Defenses or Immunity
21
Distinguish between an antigen and a hapten. (p. 628)
22
Review the origin of T cells and B cells. (p. 628)
23
De²
ne
clone of lymphocytes.
(p. 629)
24
Explain the cellular immune response including the
activation of T cells. (p. 630)
25
De²
ne
cytokine.
(p. 630)
26
List three types of T cells, and describe the function of
each in the immune response. (p. 630)
27
Explain the humoral immune response, including the
activation of B cells. (p. 632)
28
Explain the function of plasma cells. (p. 632)
29
Draw and label the parts of an antibody molecule. (p. 634)
30
Distinguish between the variable region and the constant
region of an antibody molecule. (p. 634)
OUTCOMES 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5
1. How can removal of enlarged lymph nodes for microscopic
examination aid in diagnosing certain diseases?
OUTCOMES 16.6, 16.9
2. What functions of the lymphatic system would be affected in a
person born without a thymus?
OUTCOME 16.9
3. The immune response is speciF
c, diverse, and has memory.
Give examples of each of these characteristics.
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
OUTCOME 16.9
4. Some parents keep their preschoolers away from other children
to prevent them from catching illnesses. How might these well-
meaning parents be harming their children?
OUTCOME 16.9
5. Why does vaccination provide long-lasting protection against
disease, whereas gamma globulin (IgG) provides only short-
term protection?
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