616
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
auto-,
self:
auto
immune disease—the immune system attacking
the body’s tissues.
-gen,
become, be produced: aller
gen
—substance that evokes an
allergic response.
humor-,
moisture, F
uid:
humor
al immunity—immunity resulting
from antibodies in body F
uids.
immun-,
free, exempt:
immun
ity—resistance to (freedom from) a
speci±
c disease.
inf
amm-,
to set on ±
re:
inf
amm
ation—localized redness, heat,
swelling, and pain in the tissues.
nod-,
knot:
nod
ule—small mass of lymphocytes surrounded by
connective tissue.
patho-,
disease, sickness:
patho
gen—disease-causing agent.
A falsely colored leukocyte
(white blood cell) engulfs
rod-shaped
Bacillus cereus
bacteria, and will use
enzymes to dismantle
them (20,000
×
).
A fa
(wh
rod-
bact
enzy
them
Lymphatic
System and
Immunity
LEARNING OUTCOMES
AFter you studied this chapter, you should be able to:
16.1 Introduction
1
Describe the general functions of the lymphatic system. (p. 617)
16.2 Lymphatic Pathways
2
Identify and describe the parts of the major lymphatic pathways.
(p. 617)
16.3 Tissue Fluid and Lymph
3
Describe how tissue F
uid and lymph form, and explain the function of
lymph. (p. 619)
16.4 Lymph Movement
4
Explain how lymphatic circulation is maintained, and describe the
consequence of lymphatic obstruction. (p. 621)
16.5 Lymph Nodes
5
Describe a lymph node and its major functions. (p. 621)
6
Identify the locations of the major chains of lymph nodes. (p. 622)
16.6 Thymus and Spleen
7
Discuss the locations and functions of the thymus and spleen. (p. 623)
16.7 Body De±enses Against In±ection
8
Distinguish between innate (nonspeci±
c) and adaptive (speci±
c)
defenses. (p. 626)
16.8 Innate (Nonspeci²
c) De±enses
9
List seven innate body defense mechanisms, and describe the action
of each mechanism. (p. 626)
16.9 Adaptive (Speci²
c) De±enses or Immunity
10
Explain how two major types of lymphocytes are formed and acti-
vated and how they function in immune mechanisms. (p. 628)
11
Identify the parts of an antibody molecule. (p. 634)
12
Discuss the actions of the ±
ve types of antibodies. (p. 635)
13
Distinguish between primary and secondary immune responses. (p. 637)
14
Distinguish between active and passive immunity. (p. 638)
15
Explain how allergic reactions, tissue rejection reactions, and autoim-
munity arise from immune mechanisms. (p. 639)
³16.10³ Li±e-Span³Changes
16
Describe life-span changes in immunity. (p. 644)
CHAPTER
16
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