614
UNIT FOUR
6. Veins from the lower limb and pelvis
a. Sets of deep and superF cial veins drain these regions.
b. The deep veins include the tibial veins, and the
superF
cial veins include the saphenous veins.
15.9
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 606)
1. Plaque build-up may begin early.
2. ±ibrous connective tissue and adipose tissue enlarge
the heart by F
lling in when the number and size of
cardiac muscle cells fall.
3. Heart rate and output decline slightly with age.
4. Blood pressure increases with age, while resting heart
rate decreases with age.
5. Moderate exercise correlates to lowered risk of heart
disease in older people.
4. Tributaries of the brachiocephalic and azygos veins
drain the abdominal and thoracic walls.
5. Veins from the abdominal viscera
a. The blood from the abdominal viscera generally
enters the hepatic portal system and is carried to
the liver.
b. The blood in the hepatic portal system is rich in
nutrients.
c. The liver helps regulate the blood concentrations
of glucose, amino acids, and lipids.
d. Phagocytic cells in the liver remove bacteria from
the portal blood.
e. ±rom the liver, hepatic veins carry blood to the
inferior vena cava.
15.1 Introduction
1
Match the structure and its function. (p. 553)
(1) Arteries
A. sites of nutrient, electrolyte, gas, and
(2) Arterioles
waste exchange
(3) Capillaries
B. muscular pump that forces blood
(4) Venules
through arteries
(5) Veins
C. branch into capillaries
(6) Heart
D. capillaries converge into these
E. transport blood away from the heart
F. transport blood to the heart
15.2 Structure of the Heart
2
Describe the pericardium. (p. 554)
3
Compare the layers of the heart wall. (p. 555)
4
Draw a heart and label the chambers and valves. (p. 555)
5
Blood ±
ows through the vena cavae and coronary sinus
into the right atrium, through the _______________ to
the right ventricle, through the pulmonary valve to the
pulmonary trunk into the right and left ______________
to the lungs, then leaves the lungs through the
pulmonary veins and ±
ows into the ____________,
through the mitral valve to the _____________, and
through the _____________ to the aorta. (p. 561)
6
List the vessels through which blood ±
ows from the aorta
to the myocardium and back to the right atrium. (p. 561)
15.3 Heart Actions
7
Describe the pressure changes in the atria and ventricles
during a cardiac cycle. (p. 564)
8
Explain the origins of heart sounds. (p. 564)
9
Describe the arrangement of cardiac muscle ²
bers. (p. 565)
10
Distinguish between the roles of the SA node and AV
node. (p. 565)
11
Explain how the cardiac conduction system controls the
cardiac cycle. (p. 566)
12
Describe and explain the normal ECG pattern. (p. 568)
13
Discuss how the nervous system regulates the cardiac cycle.
(p. 568)
14
Describe two factors other than the nervous system that
ect the cardiac cycle. (p. 572)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
15.4 Blood Vessels
15
Distinguish between an artery and an arteriole. (p. 574)
16
Explain control of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. (p. 576)
17
Describe the structure and function of a capillary. (p. 576)
18
Describe the function of the blood-brain barrier. (p. 576)
19
Explain control of blood ±
ow through a capillary. (p. 578)
20
Relate how di³
usion functions in the exchange of
substances between blood plasma and tissue ±
uid. (p. 578)
21
Explain why water and dissolved substances leave the
arteriolar end of a capillary and enter the venular end.
(p. 578)
22
Describe the e³
ect of histamine on a capillary. (p. 579)
23
Distinguish between a venule and a vein. (p. 579)
24
Explain how veins function as blood reservoirs. (p. 580)
15.5 Blood Pressure
25
Arterial blood pressure peaks when the ventricles
contract. This maximum pressure achieved is called the
_______________. (p. 580)
26
Name several factors that in±
uence blood pressure, and
explain how each produces its e³
ect. (p. 582)
27
Describe the control of blood pressure. (p. 585)
28
List the major factors that promote venous blood ±
ow.
(p. 589)
29
De²
ne
central venous pressure.
(p. 589)
15.6 Paths of Circulation
30
Distinguish between the pulmonary and systemic circuits
of the cardiovascular system. (p. 590)
31
Trace the path of blood through the pulmonary circuit.
(p. 590)
32
Explain why the alveoli normally do not ²
ll with ±
uid. (p. 590)
15.7–15.8
Arterial System–Venous System
33
Describe the aorta, and name its principal branches. (p. 592)
34
Discuss the relationship between the major venous
pathways and the major arterial pathways to the head,
upper limbs, abdominal viscera, and lower limbs. (p. 600)
15.9 Life-Span Changes
35
List and discuss changes in the aging cardiovascular system.
(p. 606)
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