598
UNIT FOUR
3.
Internal pudendal artery
to muscles in the distal portion
of the alimentary canal, the external genitalia, and the
hip joint.
4.
Superior
and
inferior vesical arteries
to the urinary
bladder. In males, these vessels also supply the seminal
vesicles and the prostate gland.
5.
Middle rectal artery
to the rectum.
6.
Uterine artery
to the uterus and vagina.
The
external iliac artery
provides the main blood sup-
ply to the lower limbs
(f
g. 15.50)
. It passes downward along
the brim of the pelvis and gives off two large branches—an
inferior epigastric artery
and a
deep circumfl
ex iliac artery.
These vessels supply the muscles and skin in the lower
abdominal wall. Midway between the symphysis pubis and
the anterior superior iliac spine of the ilium, the external iliac
artery becomes the femoral artery.
The
femoral
(fem
or-al)
artery,
which passes fairly close
to the anterior surface of the upper thigh, gives off many
branches to muscles and superficial tissues of the thigh.
These branches also supply the skin of the groin and the
lower abdominal wall. Important subdivisions of the femoral
artery include the following:
1.
SuperF
cial circumfl
ex iliac artery
to the lymph nodes
and skin of the groin.
2.
SuperF
cial epigastric artery
to the skin of the lower
abdominal wall.
3.
SuperF
cial
and
deep external pudendal arteries
to the
skin of the lower abdomen and external genitalia.
4.
Deep femoral artery
(the largest branch of the femoral
artery) to the hip joint and muscles of the thigh.
5.
Deep genicular artery
to distal ends of thigh muscles and
to an anastomosis around the knee joint.
The subclavian artery contributes to this supply through a
branch called the
internal thoracic artery.
This vessel origi-
nates in the base of the neck and passes downward on the
pleura and behind the cartilages of the upper six ribs. It gives
off two
anterior intercostal arteries
to each of the upper six
intercostal spaces; these two arteries supply the intercostal
muscles, other intercostal tissues, and the mammary glands.
The
posterior intercostal arteries
arise from the thoracic
aorta and enter the intercostal spaces between the third
through the eleventh ribs. These arteries branch to supply
the intercostal muscles, the vertebrae, the spinal cord, and
deep muscles of the back.
Branches of the
internal thoracic
and
external iliac arter-
ies
provide blood to the anterior abdominal wall. Paired
vessels originating from the abdominal aorta, including the
phrenic
and
lumbar arteries,
supply blood to structures in
the posterior and lateral abdominal wall.
Arteries to the Pelvis and Lower Limb
The abdominal aorta divides to form the
common iliac
(il
e-ak)
arteries
at the level of the pelvic brim. These vessels provide
blood to the pelvic organs, gluteal region, and lower limbs.
Each common iliac artery descends a short distance
and divides into an internal (hypogastric) branch and an
external branch. The
internal iliac artery
gives off many
branches to various pelvic muscles and visceral structures,
as well as to the gluteal muscles and the external genitalia.
Parts of
f
gure 15.49
show important branches of this ves-
sel, including the following:
1.
Iliolumbar artery
to the ilium and muscles of the back.
2.
Superior and inferior gluteal arteries
to the gluteal
muscles, pelvic muscles, and skin of the buttocks.
Vertebral body
Internal intercostal m.
External intercostal m.
Costal cartilage
Internal thoracic a.
Posterior intercostal a.
Anterior intercostal aa.
Sternum
Thoracic aorta
FIGURE 15.48
Arteries that supply the thoracic wall. (
a.
stands for artery,
aa.
stands for arteries ,
m.
stands for muscle.)
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