After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
Discuss the functions of the organs of the cardiovascular system.
15.2 Structure of the Heart
Distinguish between the various coverings of the heart and the layers
that compose the wall of the heart. (p. 554)
Identify and locate the major parts of the heart and discuss the func-
tion of each part. (p. 555)
Trace the pathway of the blood through the heart and the vessels of
coronary circulation. (p. 560)
15.3 Heart Actions
Describe the cardiac cycle and explain how heart sounds are pro-
duced. (p. 564)
Identify the parts of a normal ECG pattern and discuss the signiF
of this pattern. (p. 568)
Explain control of the cardiac cycle. (p. 568)
15.4 Blood Vessels
Compare the structures and functions of the major types of blood
vessels. (p. 574)
Describe how substances are exchanged between blood in capillaries
and the tissue ±
uid surrounding body cells. (p. 578)
15.5 Blood Pressure
Explain how blood pressure is produced and controlled. (p. 580)
Describe the mechanisms that aid in returning venous blood to the
heart. (p. 589)
15.6 Paths of Circulation
Compare the pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular
system. (p. 590)
Arterial System–Venous System
Identify and locate the major arteries and veins. (p. 592)
15.9 Life-Span Changes
Describe life-span changes in the cardiovascular system. (p. 611)
A thrombus (blood clot)
partially blocks this
artery entering the heart
). This situation
infarction (heart attack).
tensin—substance that constricts blood
osclerosis—deposits of plaque in arteries.
cardia—abnormally slow heartbeat.
ic pressure—blood pressure when the
ventricle of the heart is relaxed.
a—accumulation of ±
uids in the tissues
that causes them to swell.
something written: electrocardio
—recording of the
electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle.
ar valve—valve with crescent-shaped ±
cardium—muscle tissue within the wall of the
ary muscle—small mound of muscle
projecting into a ventricle of the heart.
ammation of a vein.
osis—loss of elasticity and hardening of a
blood vessel wall.
cytium—mass of merging cells that act
ic pressure—blood pressure resulting
from a single ventricular contraction.
cardia—abnormally fast heartbeat.