552
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
15.1 Introduction
1
Discuss the functions of the organs of the cardiovascular system.
(p. 553)
15.2 Structure of the Heart
2
Distinguish between the various coverings of the heart and the layers
that compose the wall of the heart. (p. 554)
3
Identify and locate the major parts of the heart and discuss the func-
tion of each part. (p. 555)
4
Trace the pathway of the blood through the heart and the vessels of
coronary circulation. (p. 560)
15.3 Heart Actions
5
Describe the cardiac cycle and explain how heart sounds are pro-
duced. (p. 564)
6
Identify the parts of a normal ECG pattern and discuss the signiF
cance
of this pattern. (p. 568)
7
Explain control of the cardiac cycle. (p. 568)
15.4 Blood Vessels
8
Compare the structures and functions of the major types of blood
vessels. (p. 574)
9
Describe how substances are exchanged between blood in capillaries
and the tissue ±
uid surrounding body cells. (p. 578)
15.5 Blood Pressure
10
Explain how blood pressure is produced and controlled. (p. 580)
11
Describe the mechanisms that aid in returning venous blood to the
heart. (p. 589)
15.6 Paths of Circulation
12
Compare the pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular
system. (p. 590)
15.7–15.8
Arterial System–Venous System
13
Identify and locate the major arteries and veins. (p. 592)
15.9 Life-Span Changes
14
Describe life-span changes in the cardiovascular system. (p. 611)
A thrombus (blood clot)
partially blocks this
artery entering the heart
(450
×
). This situation
causes myocardial
infarction (heart attack).
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
angio-,
vessel:
angio
tensin—substance that constricts blood
vessels.
ather-,
porridge:
ather
osclerosis—deposits of plaque in arteries.
brady-,
slow:
brady
cardia—abnormally slow heartbeat.
diastol-,
dilation:
diastol
ic pressure—blood pressure when the
ventricle of the heart is relaxed.
edem-,
swelling:
edem
a—accumulation of ±
uids in the tissues
that causes them to swell.
-gram,
something written: electrocardio
gram
—recording of the
electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle.
lun-,
moon: semi
lun
ar valve—valve with crescent-shaped ±
aps.
myo-,
muscle:
myo
cardium—muscle tissue within the wall of the
heart.
papill-,
nipple:
papill
ary muscle—small mound of muscle
projecting into a ventricle of the heart.
phleb-,
vein:
phleb
itis—in±
ammation of a vein.
scler-,
hard: arterio
scler
osis—loss of elasticity and hardening of a
blood vessel wall.
syn-,
together:
syn
cytium—mass of merging cells that act
together.
systol-,
contraction:
systol
ic pressure—blood pressure resulting
from a single ventricular contraction.
tachy-,
rapid:
tachy
cardia—abnormally fast heartbeat.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
A th
parti
arter
(450
caus
infar
Cardiovascular
System
CHAPTER
15
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