b. Wherever antigen A is absent, anti-A antibody
is present; wherever antigen B is absent, anti-B
antibody is present.
c. Preventing the mixing of red blood cells that
have an antigen with plasma that contains the
corresponding antibody avoids a transfusion
d. Adverse reactions are due to agglutination
(clumping) of the red blood cells.
3. Rh blood group
a. Rh antigens are present on the red blood cell
membranes of Rh-positive blood; they are absent
in Rh-negative blood.
b. An Rh-negative person exposed to Rh-positive
blood produces anti-Rh antibodies in response.
c. Mixing Rh-positive red cells with plasma that
contains anti-Rh antibodies agglutinates the
d. If an Rh-negative female is pregnant with an
Rh-positive fetus, some of the positive cells may
enter the maternal blood at the time of birth and
stimulate the maternal tissues to produce anti-Rh
e. Anti-Rh antibodies in maternal blood may pass
through the placental tissues and react with the
red blood cells of an Rh-positive fetus.
h. Fibroblasts invade a clot, forming connective
i. Protein-splitting enzymes may eventually destroy a
4. Prevention of coagulation
a. The smooth inner lining of blood vessels
discourages the accumulation of platelets.
b. As a clot forms, ±
brin adsorbs thrombin and
prevents the reaction from spreading.
c. Antithrombin interferes with the action of excess
d. Some cells secrete heparin, an anticoagulant.
BLOOD GROUPS AND TRANSFUSIONS
Blood can be typed on the basis of the surface structures
of its cells.
1. Antigens and antibodies
a. Red blood cell membranes may display speci±
b. Blood plasma may contain antibodies against
certain of these antigens.
2. ABO blood group
a. Blood can be grouped according to the presence or
absence of antigens A and B.
Major functions of blood include ___________. (p. 523)
a. nutrient, hormone, oxygen, and waste transport
b. helping maintain the stability of interstitial F
c. heat distribution
d. all of the above
±ormed elements in blood are ___________, __________,
and ____________. (p. 523)
and explain how it is determined. (p. 523)
The liquid portion of the blood is called ______________.
14.2 Blood Cells
Indicate where blood cells di³
erentiate, and explain the
process. (p. 524)
Describe a red blood cell. (p. 526)
Contrast oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. (p. 526)
Explain the signi²
cance of red blood cell counts. (p. 527)
Describe the life cycle of a red blood cell from
erentiation through destruction. (p. 527)
and explain its function. (p. 527)
Explain how vitamin B
and folic acid de²
red blood cell production. (p. 528)
List two sources of iron that can be used for the synthesis
of hemoglobin. (p. 528)
Distinguish between biliverdin and bilirubin. (p. 530)
Distinguish between granulocytes and agranulocytes.
ve types of leukocytes, and list the major
functions of each type. (p. 531)
Explain the signi²
cance of white blood cell counts as aids
to diagnosing disease. (p. 533)
_______________ are fragments of megakaryocytes that
function in _____________. (p. 534)
14.3 Blood Plasma
The most abundant component of plasma is ___________.
Name three types of plasma proteins, and indicate the
function of each type. (p. 535)
Name the gases and nutrients in plasma. (p. 536)
nonprotein nitrogenous substances,
those commonly present in plasma. (p. 537)
The most abundant plasma electrolytes are
____________ and ______________. (p. 538)
Name several plasma electrolytes. (p. 538)
____________ is the term for stoppage of bleeding. (p. 538)
Explain how blood vessel spasm is stimulated following
an injury. (p. 538)
Platelets adhering to form a plug may control blood
loss from a ____________ break, but a larger break may
require a ____________ to halt bleeding. (p. 538)
Name a vitamin required for blood clotting. (p. 539)
Distinguish between ²
brinogen and ²
brin. (p. 539)