550
UNIT FOUR
b. Wherever antigen A is absent, anti-A antibody
is present; wherever antigen B is absent, anti-B
antibody is present.
c. Preventing the mixing of red blood cells that
have an antigen with plasma that contains the
corresponding antibody avoids a transfusion
reaction.
d. Adverse reactions are due to agglutination
(clumping) of the red blood cells.
3. Rh blood group
a. Rh antigens are present on the red blood cell
membranes of Rh-positive blood; they are absent
in Rh-negative blood.
b. An Rh-negative person exposed to Rh-positive
blood produces anti-Rh antibodies in response.
c. Mixing Rh-positive red cells with plasma that
contains anti-Rh antibodies agglutinates the
positive cells.
d. If an Rh-negative female is pregnant with an
Rh-positive fetus, some of the positive cells may
enter the maternal blood at the time of birth and
stimulate the maternal tissues to produce anti-Rh
antibodies.
e. Anti-Rh antibodies in maternal blood may pass
through the placental tissues and react with the
red blood cells of an Rh-positive fetus.
h. Fibroblasts invade a clot, forming connective
tissue throughout.
i. Protein-splitting enzymes may eventually destroy a
clot.
4. Prevention of coagulation
a. The smooth inner lining of blood vessels
discourages the accumulation of platelets.
b. As a clot forms, ±
brin adsorbs thrombin and
prevents the reaction from spreading.
c. Antithrombin interferes with the action of excess
thrombin.
d. Some cells secrete heparin, an anticoagulant.
14.5
BLOOD GROUPS AND TRANSFUSIONS
(PAGE 544)
Blood can be typed on the basis of the surface structures
of its cells.
1. Antigens and antibodies
a. Red blood cell membranes may display speci±
c
antigens.
b. Blood plasma may contain antibodies against
certain of these antigens.
2. ABO blood group
a. Blood can be grouped according to the presence or
absence of antigens A and B.
14.1 Introduction
1
Major functions of blood include ___________. (p. 523)
a. nutrient, hormone, oxygen, and waste transport
b. helping maintain the stability of interstitial F
uid
c. heat distribution
d. all of the above
2
±ormed elements in blood are ___________, __________,
and ____________. (p. 523)
3
De²
ne
hematocrit,
and explain how it is determined. (p. 523)
4
The liquid portion of the blood is called ______________.
(p. 523)
14.2 Blood Cells
5
Indicate where blood cells di³
erentiate, and explain the
process. (p. 524)
6
Describe a red blood cell. (p. 526)
7
Contrast oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. (p. 526)
8
Explain the signi²
cance of red blood cell counts. (p. 527)
9
Describe the life cycle of a red blood cell from
di³
erentiation through destruction. (p. 527)
10
De²
ne
erythropoietin,
and explain its function. (p. 527)
11
Explain how vitamin B
12
and folic acid de²
ciencies a³
ect
red blood cell production. (p. 528)
12
List two sources of iron that can be used for the synthesis
of hemoglobin. (p. 528)
13
Distinguish between biliverdin and bilirubin. (p. 530)
14
Distinguish between granulocytes and agranulocytes.
(p. 530)
15
Name ²
ve types of leukocytes, and list the major
functions of each type. (p. 531)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
16
Explain the signi²
cance of white blood cell counts as aids
to diagnosing disease. (p. 533)
17
_______________ are fragments of megakaryocytes that
function in _____________. (p. 534)
14.3 Blood Plasma
18
The most abundant component of plasma is ___________.
(p. 535)
a. vitamins
b. oxygen
c. proteins
d. water
e. electrolytes
19
Name three types of plasma proteins, and indicate the
function of each type. (p. 535)
20
Name the gases and nutrients in plasma. (p. 536)
21
De²
ne
nonprotein nitrogenous substances,
and name
those commonly present in plasma. (p. 537)
22
The most abundant plasma electrolytes are
____________ and ______________. (p. 538)
23
Name several plasma electrolytes. (p. 538)
14.4 Hemostasis
24
____________ is the term for stoppage of bleeding. (p. 538)
25
Explain how blood vessel spasm is stimulated following
an injury. (p. 538)
26
Platelets adhering to form a plug may control blood
loss from a ____________ break, but a larger break may
require a ____________ to halt bleeding. (p. 538)
27
Name a vitamin required for blood clotting. (p. 539)
28
Distinguish between ²
brinogen and ²
brin. (p. 539)
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