Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
i. Lymphatic system
(1) The lymphatic system is composed of
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, and
(2) It transports lymph from tissue spaces to
the bloodstream and carries certain fatty
substances away from the digestive organs.
Lymphocytes defend the body against disease-
causing agents.
j. Urinary system
(1) The urinary system includes the kidneys,
ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
(2) It F
lters wastes from the blood and helps
maintain fl
uid and electrolyte balance.
k. Reproductive systems
(1) The reproductive system enables an organism
to produce progeny.
(2) The male reproductive system produces,
maintains, and transports male sex cells. It
includes the scrotum, testes, epididymides,
ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate
gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and
(3) The female reproductive system produces,
maintains, and transports female sex cells. It
includes the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus,
vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
Aging occurs from conception on and has effects at the
cell, tissue, organ, and organ system levels.
1. The F
rst signs of aging are noticeable in one’s thirties.
±emale fertility begins to decline during this time.
2. In the forties and F
fties, adult-onset disorders may
3. Skin changes refl
ect less elastin, collagen, and
subcutaneous fat.
4. Older people may metabolize certain drugs at
different rates than younger people.
5. Cells divide a limited number of times. As DNA repair
falters, mutations may accumulate.
6. Oxygen free-radical damage produces certain
pigments. Metabolism slows, and beta amyloid
protein may build up in the brain.
Investigators use terms with precise meanings to
effectively communicate with one another.
1. Relative position
These terms describe the location of one part with
respect to another part.
2. Body sections
Body sections are planes along which the body
may be cut to observe the relative locations and
arrangements of internal parts.
3. Body regions
Special terms designate various body regions.
b. Abdominopelvic membranes
(1) Peritoneal membranes line the abdominopelvic
cavity and cover the organs inside.
(2) The peritoneal cavity is a potential space
between these membranes.
3. Organ systems
The human organism consists of several organ
systems. Each system includes interrelated organs.
a. Integumentary system
(1) The integumentary system covers the body.
(2) It includes the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands,
and sebaceous glands.
(3) It protects underlying tissues, regulates body
temperature, houses sensory receptors, and
synthesizes substances.
b. Skeletal system
(1) The skeletal system is composed of bones and
the ligaments and cartilages that bind bones
(2) It provides framework, protective shields,
and attachments for muscles; it also produces
blood cells and stores inorganic salts.
c. Muscular system
(1) The muscular system includes the muscles of
the body.
(2) It moves body parts, maintains posture, and
produces body heat.
d. Nervous system
(1) The nervous system consists of the brain,
spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
(2) It receives impulses from sensory parts,
interprets these impulses, and acts on them,
stimulating muscles or glands to respond.
e. Endocrine system
(1) The endocrine system consists of glands that
secrete hormones.
(2) Hormones help regulate metabolism by
stimulating target tissues.
(3) It includes the pituitary gland, thyroid gland,
parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas,
ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus.
f. Digestive system
(1) The digestive system receives foods, breaks
down nutrients into forms that can pass
through cell membranes, and eliminates
unabsorbed materials.
(2) Some digestive organs produce hormones.
(3) The digestive system includes the mouth,
tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx,
esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder,
pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
g. Respiratory system
(1) The respiratory system takes in and releases
air and exchanges gases between the blood
and the air.
(2) It includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
h. Cardiovascular system
(1) The cardiovascular system includes the heart,
which pumps blood, and the blood vessels,
which carry blood to and from body parts.
(2) Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, hormones,
and wastes.
previous page 57 David Shier Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology 2010 read online next page 59 David Shier Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology 2010 read online Home Toggle text on/off