522
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
agglutin-,
to glue together:
agglutin
ation—clumping of red
blood cells.
bil-,
bile:
bil
irubin—pigment excreted in the bile.
-crit,
to separate: hemato
crit
—percentage by volume of red
blood cells in a blood sample, determined by separating the
red blood cells from the plasma.
embol-,
stopper:
embol
ism—obstruction of a blood vessel.
erythr-,
red:
erythr
ocyte—red blood cell.
hema-,
blood:
hema
tocrit—percentage of red blood cells in a
given volume of blood.
hemo-,
blood:
hem
oglobin—red pigment responsible for the
color of blood.
hepa-,
liver:
hepa
rin—anticoagulant secreted by liver cells.
leuko-,
white:
leuko
cyte—white blood cell.
-lys,
to break up: F
brino
lys
in—protein-splitting enzyme that can
digest F
brin.
macro-,
large:
macro
phage—large phagocytic cell.
-osis,
abnormal condition: leukocyt
osis
—overproduction of
white blood cells.
-poie,
make, produce: erythro
poie
tin—hormone that stimulates
the production of red blood cells.
poly-,
many:
poly
cythemia— overproduction of red blood cells.
-stasis,
halt, make stand: hemo
stasis
—arrest of bleeding from
damaged blood vessels.
thromb-,
clot:
thromb
ocyte—blood platelet involved in the
formation of a blood clot.
Blood is a complex mixture
of cells, cell fragments, and
many types of dissolved
biochemicals that provides
nutrients, oxygen, and
other vital substances to
our cells (1,800
×
).
Bloo
of ce
man
bioc
nutr
othe
our
Blood
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
14.1 Introduction
1
Describe the general characteristics of blood, and discuss its major
functions. (p. 523)
2
Distinguish among the formed elements of blood and the liquid por-
tion of blood. (p. 523)
14.2 Blood Cells
3
Describe the origin of blood cells. (p. 524)
4
Explain the signiF
cance of red blood cell counts and how they are
used to diagnose disease. (p. 527)
5
Discuss the life cycle of a red blood cell. (p. 527)
6
Summarize the control of red blood cell production. (p. 527)
7
Distinguish among the F
ve types of white blood cells, and give the
function(s) of each type. (p. 530)
8
Describe a blood platelet, and explain its functions. (p. 534)
14.3 Blood Plasma
9
Describe the functions of each of the major components of plasma.
(p. 536)
14.4 Hemostasis
10
DeF
ne
hemostasis,
and explain the mechanisms that help to achieve it.
(p. 538)
11
Review the major steps in coagulation. (p. 538)
12
Explain how to prevent coagulation. (p. 542)
14.5 Blood Groups and Transfusions
13
Explain blood typing and how it is used to avoid adverse reactions fol-
lowing blood transfusions. (p. 544)
14
Describe how blood reactions may occur between fetal and maternal
tissues. (p. 547)
UNIT IV
CHAPTER
14
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