520
UNIT THREE
25
Diagram the regulation of parathyroid hormone
secretion. (p. 503)
13.8 Adrenal Glands
26
Distinguish between the adrenal medulla and the adrenal
cortex. (p. 504)
27
Match the adrenal hormones with their source and
actions: (p. 505)
(1) cortisol
A. cortex; sodium retention
(2) aldosterone
B. cortex; female sex hormones
(3) epinephrine
C. cortex; male sex hormones
(4) androgens
D. medulla; F
ght-or-±
ight response
(5) estrogens
E. cortex; gluconeogenesis
28
Diagram control of aldosterone secretion. (p. 506)
29
Diagram control of cortisol secretion. (p. 508)
13.9 Pancreas
30
Describe the location and structure of the pancreas. (p. 509)
31
List the hormones the pancreatic islets secrete and their
general functions. (p. 509)
32
Diagram the control of pancreatic hormone secretion.
(p. 510)
13.10 Other Endocrine Glands
33
Describe the location and general function of the pineal
gland. (p. 511)
34
Describe the location and general function of the thymus.
(p. 512)
35
Name F
ve additional hormone-secreting organs. (p. 512)
13.11 Stress and Its Ef
ects
36
Distinguish between a stressor and stress. (p. 513)
37
List several factors that cause physical and/or
psychological stress. (p. 514)
38
Describe hormonal and nervous responses to stress.
(p. 514)
13.12 LiFe-Span Changes
39
Levels of which hormones decrease with age? Which
increase? (p. 515)
13
Match the following hormones with their actions: (p. 494)
(1) growth hormone
A. milk synthesis
(2) thyroid stimulating hormone
B. cell division
(3) prolactin
C. metabolic rate
(4) adrenocorticotropic hormone
D. acts on gonads
(5) follicle-stimulating hormone
E. controls secretion
(6) luteinizing hormone
of adrenal cortical
hormones
14
Explain how growth hormone produces its e²
ects. (p. 494)
15
Describe the control of growth hormone secretion. (p. 494)
16
Describe the anatomical di²
erences between the anterior
and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland. (p. 498)
17
Name and describe the functions of the posterior
pituitary hormones. (p. 498)
18
Under which of the following conditions would you expect
an increase in antidiuretic hormone secretion? (p. 498)
a. An individual ingests excess water.
b. The posterior pituitary is removed because it has a tumor.
c. An individual is rescued after three days in the desert
without food or water.
d. An individual receives an injection of synthetic antidi-
uretic hormone.
13.6 Thyroid Gland
19
Describe the location and structure of the thyroid gland.
(p. 499)
20
Match the hormones from the thyroid gland with their
descriptions. (p. 500)
(1) thyroxine
A. most potent at controlling
(2) triiodothyronine
metabolism
(3) calcitonin
B. regulates blood calcium
C. has four iodine atoms
21
DeF
ne
iodide pump.
(p. 500)
22
Diagram the control of thyroid hormone secretion. (p. 501)
13.7 Parathyroid Glands
23
Describe the location and structure of the parathyroid
glands. (p. 502)
24
Explain the general function of parathyroid hormone.
(p. 502)
OUTCOMES 2.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6
1. When a reactor of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the
Ukraine exploded at 1:23
P
.
M
. on April 26, 1986, a great plume
of radioactive isotopes erupted into the air and spread for
thousands of miles. Most of the isotopes emitted immediately
following the blast were of the element iodine. Which of the
glands of the endocrine system would be most seriously—and
immediately—affected by the blast, and how do you think this
would become evident in the nearby population?
OUTCOMES 4.5, 13.4, 13.9
2. Why might oversecretion of insulin reduce glucose uptake by
nerve cells?
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
OUTCOMES 13.3, 13.5, 13.11, 13.12
3. A young mother feels shaky, distracted, and generally ill. She
lives with her mother, who is dying. A friend tells the young
woman, “It’s just stress, it’s all in your head.” Is it?
OUTCOMES 13.4, 13.5
4. Growth hormone is administered to people who have pituitary
dwarF
sm. Parents wanting their normal children to be taller
have requested the treatment for them. Do you think that this
is a wise request? Why or why not?
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