24
UNIT ONE
endocrinology
(en
do-krı˘-nol
o-je) Study of
hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and associated
diseases.
epidemiology
(ep
ı˘-de
me-ol
o-je) Study of the factors
that contribute to determining the distribution and
frequency of health-related conditions within a deF
ned
human population.
gastroenterology
(gas
tro-en
ter-ol
o-je) Study of the
stomach and intestines, as well as their diseases.
geriatrics
(jer
e-at
riks) Branch of medicine dealing
with older individuals and their medical problems.
gerontology
(jer
on-tol
o-je) Study of the process of
aging and the various problems of older individuals.
gynecology
(gi
ne
˘-kol-o-je) Study of the female
reproductive system and its diseases.
hematology
(hem
ah-tol
o-je) Study of blood and
blood diseases.
histology
(his-tol
o-je) Study of the structure and
function of tissues (microscopic anatomy).
immunology
(im
u-nol
o-je) Study of the body’s
resistance to disease.
neonatology
(ne
o-na-tol
o-je) Study of newborns and
the treatment of their disorders.
nephrology
(ne
˘-frol
o-je) Study of the structure,
function, and diseases of the kidneys.
neurology
(nu-rol
o-je) Study of the nervous system in
health and disease.
obstetrics
(ob-stet
riks) Branch of medicine dealing
with pregnancy and childbirth.
oncology
(ong-kol
o-je) Study of cancers.
ophthalmology
(of
thal-mol
o-je) Study of the eye and
eye diseases.
pectoral
(pek
tor-al) chest
pedal
(ped
al) foot
pelvic
(pel
vik) pelvis
perineal
(per
ı˘-ne
al) region between the anus and the
external reproductive organs (perineum)
plantar
(plan
tar) sole of the foot
popliteal
(pop
lı˘-te
al) area behind the knee
sacral
(sa
kral) posterior region between the hipbones
sternal
(ster
nal) middle of the thorax, anteriorly
sural
(su
ral) calf of the leg
tarsal
(tahr
sal) instep of the foot (ankle)
umbilical
(um-bil
ı˘-kal) navel
vertebral
(ver
te-bral) spinal column
PRACTICE
26
Describe the anatomical position.
27
Using the appropriate terms, describe the relative positions of
several body parts.
28
Describe three types of body sections.
29
Describe the nine regions of the abdomen.
30
Explain how the names of the abdominal regions describe their
locations.
SOME MEDICAL AND APPLIED
SCIENCES
cardiology
(kar
de-ol
o-je) Branch of medical science
dealing with the heart and heart diseases.
dermatology
(der
mah-tol
o-je) Study of skin and its
diseases.
Right
hypochondriac
region
Right
lumbar
region
Right
iliac
region
Epigastric
region
Umbilical
region
Hypogastric
region
Left
hypochondriac
region
Left
lumbar
region
Left
iliac
region
(a)
Right upper
quadrant (RUQ)
Left upper
quadrant (LUQ)
Right lower
quadrant (RLQ)
Left lower
quadrant (LLQ)
(b)
FIGURE 1.24
The abdominal area is commonly subdivided in two ways: (
a
) into nine regions and (
b
) into four quadrants
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