22
UNIT ONE
Body Regions
A number of terms designate body regions. The abdominal
area, for example, is subdivided into the following regions,
as shown in
f
gure 1.24
a
:
1.
Epigastric region
The upper middle portion.
2.
Left
and
right hypochondriac regions
On the left/right
side of the epigastric region.
3.
Umbilical region
The central portion.
4.
Left
and
right lumbar regions
On the left/right side of
the umbilical region.
5.
Hypogastric region
The lower middle portion.
6.
Left
and
right iliac (or inguinal) regions
On the left/
right side of the hypogastric region.
The abdominal area may also be subdivided into the fol-
lowing four quadrants, as
f
gure 1.24
b
illustrates:
1.
Right upper quadrant
(RUQ).
2.
Right lower quadrant
(RLQ).
3.
Left upper quadrant
(LUQ).
4.
Left lower quadrant
(LLQ).
Body Sections
To observe the relative locations and arrangements of inter-
nal parts, it is necessary to cut, or section, the body along
various planes
(f gs. 1.21 and 1.22)
. The following terms
describe such planes and sections:
1.
Sagittal
refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body
into right and left portions. If a sagittal section passes
along the midline and divides the body into equal parts,
it is called median (midsagittal). A sagittal section
lateral to midline is called parasagittal.
2.
Transverse
(or horizontal) refers to a cut that divides
the body into superior and inferior portions.
3.
Frontal
(or coronal) refers to a section that divides the
body into anterior and posterior portions.
Sometimes a cylindrical organ such as a blood vessel is
sectioned. In this case, a cut across the structure is called a
cross section,
an angular cut is called an
oblique section,
and a
lengthwise cut is called a
longitudinal section
(f g. 1.23)
.
A section along a frontal
plane
A section along a transverse
plane
A section along the
median plane
Transverse
(horizontal)
plane
Frontal
(coronal)
plane
Parasagittal
plane
Median
(midsagittal)
plane
FIGURE 1.21
Observation of internal parts requires sectioning the body along various planes.
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