A number of terms designate body regions. The abdominal
area, for example, is subdivided into the following regions,
as shown in
The upper middle portion.
right hypochondriac regions
On the left/right
side of the epigastric region.
The central portion.
right lumbar regions
On the left/right side of
the umbilical region.
The lower middle portion.
right iliac (or inguinal) regions
On the left/
right side of the hypogastric region.
The abdominal area may also be subdivided into the fol-
lowing four quadrants, as
Right upper quadrant
Right lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Left lower quadrant
To observe the relative locations and arrangements of inter-
nal parts, it is necessary to cut, or section, the body along
(f gs. 1.21 and 1.22)
. The following terms
describe such planes and sections:
refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body
into right and left portions. If a sagittal section passes
along the midline and divides the body into equal parts,
it is called median (midsagittal). A sagittal section
lateral to midline is called parasagittal.
(or horizontal) refers to a cut that divides
the body into superior and inferior portions.
(or coronal) refers to a section that divides the
body into anterior and posterior portions.
Sometimes a cylindrical organ such as a blood vessel is
sectioned. In this case, a cut across the structure is called a
an angular cut is called an
lengthwise cut is called a
(f g. 1.23)
A section along a frontal
A section along a transverse
A section along the
Observation of internal parts requires sectioning the body along various planes.