These cells in the
have several effects on
bark, rind: adrenal
ex—outer portion of an adrenal
to secrete: endo
to pass urine:
ic—substance that promotes urine
crine gland—gland that internally secretes
into a body F
crine gland—gland that secretes to the outside
through a duct.
one—substance that a cell
secretes that a±
ects another cell.
thyroidism—condition resulting from an
above-normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
thyroidism—condition resulting from a
below-normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
in—hormone that promotes milk production.
ulla—middle section of an adrenal
thyroid glands—set of glands near the surface
of the thyroid gland.
in—hormone that stimulates the uterine
muscles to contract during childbirth.
secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the
opressin—substance that causes blood vessel
walls to contract.
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands. (p. 483)
13.2 General Characteristics of the Endocrine System
Explain what makes a cell a target cell for a hormone. (p. 483)
List some important functions of hormones. (p. 484)
13.3 Hormone Action
Describe how hormones can be classi²
ed according to their chemical
composition (p. 485)
Explain how steroid and nonsteroid hormones a±
ect their target cells
13.4 Control of Hormonal Secretions
Discuss how negative feedback mechanisms regulate hormone secre-
tion. (p. 492)
Explain how the nervous system controls hormone secretion. (p. 492)
Pituitary Gland–Other Endocrine Glands
Name and describe the locations of the major endocrine glands, and
list the hormones that they secrete. (p. 492)
Describe the actions of the various hormones and their contributions
to homeostasis. (p. 494)
Explain how the secretion of each hormone is regulated. (p. 494)
13.11 Stress and Its EF
Distinguish between physical and psychological stress. (p. 514)
Describe the general stress response. (p. 514)
Describe some of the changes associated with aging of the endocrine
system. (p. 515)