482
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
Endocrine
System
CHAPTER
13
These cells in the
adrenal cortex
secrete glucocorticoid
hormones, which
have several effects on
metabolism (14,400
×
).
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
cort-,
bark, rind: adrenal
cort
ex—outer portion of an adrenal
gland.
-crin,
to secrete: endo
crin
e—internal secretions.
diuret-,
to pass urine:
diuret
ic—substance that promotes urine
production.
endo-,
inside:
endo
crine gland—gland that internally secretes
into a body F
uid.
exo-,
outside:
exo
crine gland—gland that secretes to the outside
through a duct.
horm-,
impetus, impulse:
horm
one—substance that a cell
secretes that a±
ects another cell.
hyper-,
above:
hyper
thyroidism—condition resulting from an
above-normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
hypo-,
below:
hypo
thyroidism—condition resulting from a
below-normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
lact-,
milk: pro
lact
in—hormone that promotes milk production.
med-,
middle: adrenal
med
ulla—middle section of an adrenal
gland.
para-,
beside:
para
thyroid glands—set of glands near the surface
of the thyroid gland.
toc-,
birth: oxy
toc
in—hormone that stimulates the uterine
muscles to contract during childbirth.
-tropic,
inF
uencing: adrenocortico
tropic
hormone—a hormone
secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the
adrenal cortex.
vas-,
vessel:
vas
opressin—substance that causes blood vessel
walls to contract.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
13.1 Introduction
1
Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands. (p. 483)
13.2 General Characteristics of the Endocrine System
2
Explain what makes a cell a target cell for a hormone. (p. 483)
3
List some important functions of hormones. (p. 484)
13.3 Hormone Action
4
Describe how hormones can be classi²
ed according to their chemical
composition (p. 485)
5
Explain how steroid and nonsteroid hormones a±
ect their target cells
(p. 485)
13.4 Control of Hormonal Secretions
6
Discuss how negative feedback mechanisms regulate hormone secre-
tion. (p. 492)
7
Explain how the nervous system controls hormone secretion. (p. 492)
13.5–13.10
Pituitary Gland–Other Endocrine Glands
8
Name and describe the locations of the major endocrine glands, and
list the hormones that they secrete. (p. 492)
9
Describe the actions of the various hormones and their contributions
to homeostasis. (p. 494)
10
Explain how the secretion of each hormone is regulated. (p. 494)
13.11 Stress and Its EF
ects
11
Distinguish between physical and psychological stress. (p. 514)
12
Describe the general stress response. (p. 514)
±13.12± Life-Span±Changes
13
Describe some of the changes associated with aging of the endocrine
system. (p. 515)
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