481
CHAPTER TWELVE
Nervous System III
OUTCOMES 2.2, 11.5, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4
1. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brains of
people who have been blind since birth reveal high neural
activity in the visual centers of the cerebral cortex when these
people read Braille. When sighted individuals run their F
ngers
over the raised letters of Braille, their visual centers do not
show increased activity. Explain these F
ndings.
OUTCOMES 6.5, 11.6, 12.2
2. Why are some serious injuries, like a bullet entering the
abdomen, relatively painless, but others, such as a burn,
considerably more painful?
OUTCOMES 11.5, 12.2, 12.4
3. Loss of the sense of smell often precedes the major symptoms
of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. What additional
information is needed to use this association to prevent or treat
these diseases?
INTEGRATED ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
OUTCOMES 12.2, 12.3
4. A patient with heart disease experiences pain at the base of the
neck and in the left shoulder and upper limb during exercise.
How would you explain the likely origin of this pain to the
patient?
OUTCOMES 12.2, 12.4
5. People who are deaf due to cochlear damage do not suffer
motion sickness. Why not?
OUTCOMES 12.2, 12.4
6. Labyrinthitis is an infl
ammation of the inner ear. What
symptoms would you expect in a patient with this disorder?
40
Distinguish between the fovea centralis and the optic
disc. (p. 469)
41
The following are compartments in the eye.
In which one
is vitreous humor found? (p. 469)
a. anterior chamber
b. posterior chamber
c. anterior cavity
d. posterior cavity
42
Explain how light is focused on the retina. (p. 471)
43
Distinguish between rods and cones. (p. 473)
44
Explain why cone vision is generally more acute than rod
vision. (p. 473)
45
Describe the function of rhodopsin. (p. 473)
46
Explain why rod vision may be more important under dim
light conditions. (p. 475)
47
Describe the relationship between light wavelength and
color vision. (p. 475)
48
DeF
ne
stereoscopic vision.
(p. 475)
49
Explain why a person with normal binocular vision is
able to judge distance and depth of close objects more
accurately than a person who has lost one eye. (p. 475)
50
Trace each step in the pathway from the retina to the
visual cortex. (p. 475)
12.5 Life-Span Changes
51
Explain the basis of fading senses of smell and taste with
aging. (p. 476)
52
List three causes of hearing loss associated with aging.
(p. 476)
53
Explain F
ve problems that can interfere with vision as a
person ages. (p. 477)
Anatomy & Physiology Revealed® (APR)
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animations, radiologic imaging, audio pronunciations, and practice
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WEB CONNECTIONS
Be sure to visit the text website at
www.mhhe.com/shier12
for
answers to chapter assessments, additional quizzes, and interactive
learning exercises.
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY REVEALED
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