480
UNIT THREE
12.1 Introduction
1
Explain the dif
erence between a general sense and a
special sense. (p. 438)
12.2 Receptors, Sensation, and Perception
2
Match each sensory receptor to the type oF stimulus to
which it is likely to respond: (p. 439)
(1) Chemoreceptor
A. approaching headlights
(2) Pain receptor
B. a change in blood pressure
(3) Thermoreceptor
C. the smell oF roses
(4) Mechanoreceptor
D. an inFected tooth
(5) Photoreceptor
E. a cool breeze
3
Explain how sensory receptors stimulate sensory
impulses. (p. 439)
4
Explain the dif
erence between a sensation and a
perception. (p. 439)
5
Explain the projection oF a sensation. (p. 439)
6
De±
ne
sensory
adaptation
.
(p. 440)
7
You ±
ll up the tub to take a hot bath, but the water is
too hot. You test it a second and third time within a Few
seconds, and it Feels OK. Which oF the Following is the
most likely explanation? (p. 440)
a. The water has cooled down unusually quickly.
b. Your ability to sense heat has adapted.
c. Your nervous system is suddenly not Functioning
properly.
12.3 General Senses
8
Explain how general senses can be grouped. (p. 440)
9
Describe the Functions oF Free nerve endings, tactile
corpuscles, and lamellated corpuscles. (p. 440)
10
Describe the Functions oF the two classes oF
thermoreceptors. (p. 440)
11
Compare pain receptors with the other types oF somatic
receptors. (p. 440)
12
List the conditions likely to stimulate visceral pain
receptors. (p. 441)
13
De±
ne
referred pain,
and provide an example. (p. 441)
14
Contrast the nerve pathways involved in the production
oF acute and chronic pain. (p. 442)
15
Explain how neuropeptides relieve pain. (p. 443)
16
Distinguish between muscle spindles and Golgi tendon
organs. (p. 444)
12.4 Special Senses
17
Explain how the senses oF smell and taste Function
together to create the perception oF the ²
avors oF Foods.
(p. 446)
18
Which two oF the Following are part oF the olFactory
organs? (p. 446)
a. olFactory receptors
b. columnar epithelial cells in the nasal mucosa
c. the nose
d. the brain
19
Trace each step in the pathway From an olFactory receptor
to the interpreting center oF the cerebrum. (p. 447)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
20
Salivary glands are important in taste because _________.
(p. 448)
a. they provide the ²
uid in which Food molecules dissolve
b. the taste receptors are located in salivary glands
c. salivary glands are part oF the brain
d. lamellar corpuscles are activated
21
Name the ±
ve primary taste sensations and indicate a
speci±
c stimulus For each. (p. 449)
22
Explain why taste sensation is less likely to diminish with
age than olFactory sensation. (p. 450)
23
Trace each step in the pathway From a taste receptor to
the interpreting center oF the cerebrum. (p. 450)
24
Match the ear area with the associated structure: (p. 450)
(1) outer ear
A. cochlea
(2) middle ear
B. eardrum
(3) inner ear
C. auditory ossicles
25
Trace each step in the pathway From the external acoustic
meatus to hearing receptors. (p. 450)
26
Describe the Functions oF the auditory ossicles. (p. 452)
27
IdentiFy the parts oF the tympanic re²
ex, explain how they
work, and explain the importance oF this re²
ex. (p. 452)
28
The Function oF the auditory tube is to _________. (p. 453)
a. equalize air pressure on both sides oF the eardrum
b. transmit sound vibrations to the eardrum
c. contain the hearing receptors
d. none oF the above
29
Distinguish between the osseous and membranous
labyrinths. (p. 453)
30
Describe the cochlea and its Function. (p. 453)
31
Which oF the Following best describes hearing receptor
“hair cells”? (p. 456)
a. They are neurons.
b. They lack ion channels.
c. They are epithelial, but Function like neurons.
d. They are made oF keratin.
32
Explain how a hearing receptor stimulates a sensory
neuron. (p. 456)
33
Trace each step in the pathway From the spiral organ to
the interpreting centers oF the cerebrum. (p. 456)
34
Describe the organs oF static and dynamic equilibrium
and their Functions. (p. 459)
35
Explain how the sense oF vision helps maintain
equilibrium. (p. 461)
36
Match the visual accessory organ with its Function: (p. 462)
(1) Eyelid
A. moves the eye
(2) Conjunctiva
B. covers the eye
(3) Lacrimal gland
C. lines the eyelids
(4) Extrinsic muscle
D. produces tears
37
Name the three layers oF the eye wall and describe the
Functions oF each layer. (p. 465)
38
Explain why looking at a close object causes Fatigue in
terms oF how accommodation is accomplished. (p. 467)
39
Explain the mechanisms oF pupil constriction and pupil
dilation. (p. 468)
beca
e
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