18
UNIT ONE
excretory system.
However,
excretion
(ek-skre
shun), or waste
removal, is also a function of the respiratory system and, to a
lesser extent, the digestive and integumentary systems.
Reproduction
Reproduction
(re
pro-duk
shun) is the process of produc-
ing offspring (progeny). Cells reproduce when they divide
and give rise to new cells. The
reproductive
(re
pro-duk
tiv)
system
(f g. 1.18)
of an organism, however, produces whole
new organisms like itself (see chapter 22).
The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, tes-
tes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, pros-
tate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penis. These
structures produce and maintain the male sex cells, or sperm
cells (spermatozoa). The male reproductive system also
transfers these cells into the female reproductive tract.
The female reproductive system consists of the ova-
ries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva. These
organs produce and maintain the female sex cell (egg cells or
ova), transport the female’s egg cell within the female repro-
ductive system, and receive the male’s sperm cells for the
possibility of fertilizing an egg. The female reproductive sys-
tem also supports development of embryos, carries a fetus
to term, and functions in the birth process.
Figure 1.19
illus-
trates the organ systems in humans.
PRACTICE
22
Name the major organ systems and list the organs of each system.
23
Describe the general functions of each organ system.
FIGURE 1.17
The digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems absorb nutrients, take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide, and excrete wastes.
Digestive system
Respiratory system
Urinary system
Male reproductive system
Female reproductive system
FIGURE 1.18
The reproductive systems manufacture and transport
sex cells. The female reproductive system provides for prenatal
development and childbirth.
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