Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
(disease-causing microorganisms and viruses) from tissue
ﬂ uid. The lymphatic system is discussed in chapter 16.
Absorption and Excretion
Organs in several systems absorb nutrients and oxygen and
excrete wastes. The organs of the
(f g. 1.17)
, discussed in detail in chapter 17 receive foods and
then break down food molecules into simpler forms that can
be absorbed into the internal environment. Certain digestive
organs (chapter 17, pp. 668, 671, 672) also produce hormones
and thus function as parts of the endocrine system.
The digestive system includes the mouth, tongue,
teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
Chapter 18 discusses nutrition and metabolism, considering
the fate of foods in the body.
The organs of the
1.17) take air in and out and exchange gases between the blood
and the air. More speciF cally, oxygen passes from air in the
lungs into the blood, and carbon dioxide leaves the blood and
enters the air. The nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bron-
chi, and lungs are parts of this system, discussed in chapter 19.
(fig. 1.17) consists of
the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kid-
neys remove wastes from blood and assist in maintaining the
body’s water and electrolyte balance. The product of these
activities is urine. Other parts of the urinary system store urine
and transport it outside the body. Chapter 20 discusses the
urinary system. Sometimes the urinary system is called the
The nervous and endocrine systems integrate and coordinate body functions.
The cardiovascular and lymphatic systems transport